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Semaglutide Online For Diabetes Research

Semaglutide Online for saleOral semaglutide online (Rybelsus ® ), the first oral GLP-1 analogue for the early comprehensive management of type 2 diabetes, arrives in Spain. The new drug is taken once a day, which allows the route of administration to be adapted to the needs and patient preferences, an aspect that obviously favors adherence to treatment and thus control of the disease .


It is also thought that oral semaglutide online “should be nephroprotective like any drug that is effective in treating hyperglycemia” and that it helps “lower blood pressure,” argues Dr. Esteban Jódar, head of the department of Endocrinology and Nutrition of hospitals Quirón Salud Pozuelo, Ruber Juan Bravo and San José (Madrid).

“What the molecule is, we do have efficacy and safety data in patients with kidney failure”, in which, in addition, this drug is configured as “a particularly attractive alternative since it is free of hypoglycemia“, explains Jódar. In fact, reducing glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) “will lead to a lower risk of the onset and progression of kidney disease, just like any other complication,” says Dr. Jódar, who adds that there is evidence that with semaglutide decreases “the progression of proteinuric kidney disease”.

Semaglutide Online For Oral Dosing and Therapy


The new oral therapy also has side effects that are typical of incretin drugs, events that in diabetics affect a minority of individuals and that are of a gastrointestinal nature, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation. However, “the percentage of subjects who end up requiring the suppression of the drug is low”, establishes the expert. Be that as it may, what is done is to give gradually increasing doses so that tolerability and tolerance improve. In this sense, Dr. Sara Artola, Primary Care physician at the José Marvá Health Center in Madrid, explains that treatment with Rybelsus can be scaled from 3 milligrams a day to 7 milligrams after 4 weeks, and if good tolerance is observed, “ it reaches up to 14 milligrams in a single oral dose, always on an empty stomach,

Clinically relevant weight loss with Semaglutide Online

It is estimated that diabetes affects more than 6 million people in Spain, most of them with type 2 diabetes and other serious associated pathologies such as obesity or cardiovascular disease. For this reason, early and multifactorial treatment of hyperglycemia and cardiovascular risk is especially important, since in this way it is attempted, on the one hand, to delay the appearance of chronic complications, and on the other hand, to improve the quality of life of diabetics 2 . To facilitate the process, Novo Nordisklaunches Rybelsus (oral semaglutide online), a therapeutic innovation that combines, in a tablet, the efficacy and safety of an arGLP-1, having proven to be an effective treatment both in reducing glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and weight, and presenting a low risk of hypoglycemia 3 .

What is Glycemic Control?

Indicated for the treatment of diabetic adults who have not been adequately controlled to improve glycemic control, and as an adjunct to diet and exercise 3, oral semaglutide “would also be an excellent option for people with diabetes, whether treated with metformin or any other oral drug, who need weight loss” or a decrease in “the risk of suffering a cardiovascular event”, specifies the Dr. Jodar. In the words of Rodrigo Gribble, General Director of Novo Nordisk in Spain, “Oral semaglutide online can be established as a new reference in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Its solid clinical profile provides a much-needed therapeutic option for people seeking a new solution. and effective in controlling your disease. This drug is called to have a great impact on the lives of Spaniards with type 2 diabetes, and we hope it will be so”.

Semaglutide Online clinical trials

In the PIONEER program of clinical trials, which included 9,543 adults with type 2 diabetes, participants treated with oral semaglutide had significantly greater blood sugar reduction and clinically relevant weight loss compared with sitagliptin, empagliflozin, and liraglutide 4 .5 . And it is that, with this therapeutic alternative, management focused on the control of HbA1c evolves to an early comprehensive control of type 2 diabetes with a focus on weight management 6 . In addition, taking the new drug can benefit those “patients who have insufficient control and who are already treated with metformin and DPP-4 inhibitors. Therefore, oral semaglutide could replace the DPP-4 inhibitor and provide an additional benefit7 ”, specifies Jódar.

Type 2 diabetes or DM2 can be caused by multiple factors
Adapted from: International Diabetes Federation. Available at: Last accessed: 12 January 2018.
Dissemination: Novo Nordisk / Cícero Communication

What is oral semaglutide?

So “oral semaglutide, in addition to being a new and unique arGLP-1 option to treat diabetes without injections, could represent a new standard for the treatment of type 2 diabetes 3 “, says Dr. Francisco Pajuelo, medical director of Novo Nordisk Spain. “Many people with type 2 diabetes do not achieve blood sugar targets accompanied by weight loss with low risk of hypoglycemia, which highlights the need for new, more effective solutions to improve diabetes control. And this is our commitment: to improve the health and quality of life of the people who live with it”, he highlights.

Blindness, cardiovascular diseases…
Diabetes can cause problems such as blindness, kidney disease or cardiovascular diseases. With this in mind, starting an appropriate therapeutic approach as soon as possible allows the natural course of the condition to be changed and serious complications to be avoided. “Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that can go unnoticed for years. Therefore, an early diagnosis and good control in the first years will produce a beneficial metabolic memory to delay the onset of complications and reduce morbidity and mortality”, says Dr. Artola.

Importance of not postponing the intensification of treatment

Both Dr. Jódar and Dr. Artola agree on the importance of not postponing the intensification of treatment for later, once diabetes has been diagnosed. In this sense, Artola comments that “having a therapeutic option such as oral semaglutide makes it possible to intensify treatment from diagnosis in patients with type 2 diabetes who also have obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia or cardiovascular or renal complications. This improves the prognosis and progression of these processes”.

According to the specialist, “up to 23% of people with diabetes have established cardiovascular disease, almost another 30% have some degree of chronic kidney disease, up to 9% have heart failure, and 45% have diabetes and obesity” . With these figures, Jódar maintains, “we hope that this new drug, the only one for oral administration in its therapeutic class, 3 will help us treat more patients in earlier stages to achieve this triple benefit (lower HbA1c and weight, and greater safety cardiovascular)”.

Added to this is the fact that, as Dr. Artola points out, “the aging of the population and the escalation of obesity” are factors that “are causing the number of people with type 2 diabetes to increase exponentially. Then we have a lot of work and These innovations help us tremendously.”

Source: Zoom / Novo Nordisk / Cícero Comunicación

The importance of seeking treatment alternatives adapted to the life of each one
In general, both experts say that patients tend to prefer oral treatments over injectables. “However, until now, the oral drugs available to treat type 2 diabetes were not as potent as some of the injectable drugs. And this is the need that helps us to cover oral semaglutide, also a first-rate technical advance by formulating semaglutide with SNAC, an absorption enhancer that allows a peptide to be administered orally”, explains the endocrinologist at the Quirón Salud Pozuelo hospitals. , Ruber Juan Bravo and San Jose. In this regard, Artola notes that it is always easier to take an oral medication than any injected medication: “the fact of having to give yourself an injection requires learning or errors may occur in the technique, although much progress has also been made in management devices. Oral semaglutide, taken thirty minutes before breakfast, always with water and separated from any other medication, helps to better control diabetes thanks to the benefits of this therapeutic group”.

What the doctors say

In short, both doctors affirm that it is important to look for treatment alternatives adapted to the life of each patient, so that effective diabetes control is achieved that improves their quality of life. In this line, they assure that “the therapeutic arsenal to treat diabetes has grown remarkably and, especially for people with type 2 diabetes, we have very good options. Knowing that there are drugs like oral semaglutide, unique in its class, gives us the possibility of benefiting many more patients than we were benefiting until now”.

Rybelsus (oral semaglutide) is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog and is the world’s first and only GLP-1 in tablet form. It is administered once a day and is approved for use in three therapeutic doses, 3, 7 and 14 milligrams in the European Union 3 .

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Albuterol For Sale

Albuterol For SaleAlbuterol for sale here today for research only. We supply Peptide Warehouses Albuterol for education and laboratory use only. If you are in the research community and want premium quality research products we can help. We supply a vast selection of research peptides and SARMs including Albuterol for research.  

Can you buy Albuterol?

You can buy Albuterol online with Peptide Warehouse for research only. We supply the raw ingredient Albuterol 5mg per ml x 60ml $52.33. It is an important product that goes into helping millions of asthmas sufferers every day.


Albuterol and Ventolin are the same things. Albuterol is the drug’s generic name. Ventolin is a trademark of a specific inhaler that contains the drug albuterol.

Albuterol is a bronchodilator. It treats or prevents bronchospasm (tight airways) by opening the airways, making breathing easier.

Albuterol inhalers can treat or prevent symptoms of asthma or COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), including wheezing, coughing, tight chest, and shortness of breath.

Albuterol is a medicine used to treat or prevent bronchospasm, which causes asthma or COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). It is a bronchodilator, a medication that opens the airways to help you breathe easier. These drugs are inflatables or inhalers, usually administered by inhalation.

There are two common names for this drug: albuterol and salbutamol. You can see these words interchangeably. Brands for albuterol inhalers include Ventolin HFA, ProAir HFA, Proventil HFA, and ProAir RespiClick. These four drugs are available in an L-shaped inhaler.

Can You Buy Inhaler Online?

There are other ways to take this medicine. One way is called a jet sprayer. The Accuneb brand is also albuterol. It comes as a liquid that turns into a mist with the help of a jet spray device. To take Accuneb, wear a nebulizer mask, turn on the device, and inhale the misty steam for a few minutes. This version of an asthma inhaler may be easier for young children or someone who finds it difficult to use an aerosol or powder inhaler. Most inhalers and asthmas treatments are only available with a prescription. 

Ventolin Inhalers: What are they used for?

Albuterol inhalers treat two main conditions – asthma and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). 

Both conditions can cause coughing and difficulty breathing. All albuterol inhalers do the same thing. They open the airways to help more air pass through them and make breathing easier.

Asthma is a relatively common condition affecting about 7% of people in the United States. It often begins in childhood and is a condition in which the lungs are sensitive to specific triggers that do not affect others. For people with asthma, things like cold air, allergies (such as pet dandruff), or exercise can trigger the airways and trigger an asthma attack (NIH, 2020). Albuterol inhalers help relieve wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and tight chest, all symptoms of an asthma attack.

Is Albuterol a Steroid?

Albuterol is not a steroid it is a bronchodilator that opens the airways to make breathing easier. Albuterol is a short-acting beta-2 antagonist (SABA), which acts quickly and wears out quickly (NIH, 2020).

People confuse albuterol with steroids because asthma patients have prescribed a corticosteroid. It is a controlled drug and a rescue inhaler, such as albuterol. Unlike life-saving medications, control medications such as steroids regularly to prevent asthma symptoms. Patients using both medicines will use the control medicine to prevent symptoms and the rescue inhaler from relieving them.

Other medications can help relieve asthma symptoms or reduce the frequency of attacks. These include long-acting beta-2 antagonists (LABA), drugs such as cromolyn, allergy photos, biologics, and others.

It is important to note that these drugs are not a cure for asthma or COPD. They simply provide relief from symptoms.

Can Albuterol be Purchased Over-the-Counter?

If you have asthma or COPD, your doctor will help you. It will depend on your age, the severity of your symptoms, and how well you respond to the medication. You may need to use only a short-term symptom reliever, such as albuterol. Or you may need a combination of medicines to help keep your asthma or COPD under control. Albuterol is only available with a prescription.

Getting to know your medications can help you have effective conversations with your healthcare provider and get the proper treatment. Brand names may vary, but if you use Ventolin, ProAir, Proventil, or Accuneb, you are using the same medicine – albuterol.

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Cabergoline For Sale Online

cabergoline for sale onlineCabergoline For Sale Online here today for the competitive price of $62.33. We supply Peptides Warehouse Cabergoline for study use only. The research chemical Cabergoline can treat problems that arise when too much prolactin hormone is made. Studies show it to be effective in treating menstrual problems, fertility problems and pituitary gland tumors. Of course, more testing is necessary, so that is where we come in. We supply the best quality Cabergoline online for further study.

<<Buy Cabergoline now at the best prices online!>>

In this post we as the following questions and more!

Can I buy cabergoline over the counter?
How much does cabergoline cost?
Is cabergoline available in the US?
Is there an alternative to cabergoline?

Can I Buy Cabergoline Over The Counter?

We supply the raw chemical Cabergoline for research online for education and laboratory use. Cabergoline is available under the brand name Dostinex. Cabergoline oral tablet is available over the counter but only with a prescription. Ultimately, laws are different depending on where you live in the world. So, it is important to discuss any medical issue with a doctor.

How Much does Cabergoline Cost?

If you are in the research industry and want the best quality Cabergoline you have found the right place. We supply the raw ingredient Cabergoline for the affordable cost of $62.33.

Is there an alternative to Cabergoline?

Cabergoline is also Dostinex. It is a dopamine receptor antagonist used to treat a hormone imbalance in which there is too much prolactin in the blood.

The ingredient is used in medication to treat a variety of problems when too much of the hormone prolactin is made in the body.

Cabergoline works by stopping the brain from making too much prolactin in the pituitary gland. It can work for about 6 months and then when symptoms arise it may be given again. Cabergoline is available under the name Dostinex over the counter by prescription only!

Is Cabergoline Available in the US?

Cabergoline 0.5mg per ml x 30ml is widely available in the USA online for research only. One of the leading research companies we recommend is Peptides Warehouse. A long established company supplying a selection of SARMs and Peptides for research only.

What is Cabergoline?

Cabergoline is a long-acting synthetic alkaloid derived from ergotamine. It acts at the central level causing a dose-dependent suppression of prolactin levels, thanks to its agonist activity on dopamine (D2) receptors of the anterior pituitary gland. Cabergoline is seven times more selective towards D2 receptors than bromocriptine. So this greater selectivity could be responsible for its better tolerance compared to other dopaminergic agonists. Cabergoline has minimal affinity for adrenergic (α1 and α2), serotonergic, or histaminergic receptors. It is a potent 5-HT2B serotonin receptor agonist, contributing to fibrotic and Valvulopathy events.

What is it Cabergoline For?

Cabergoline reduces high levels of the hormone prolactin. Prolactin is a natural substance in the body that helps women produce milk for breast feeding. But, it can also cause other problems such as bone loss in breast-feeding women, infertility, and sexual problems.

Cabergoline Dosage in Clinical Uses

Treatment of hyperprolactinemic disorders: amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, anovulation and galactorrhea.

Prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas (micro- and macroprolactinomas), idiopathic hyperprolactinemia, or empty sella syndrome associated with hyperprolactinemia.

It represent the basic underlying pathologies that contribute to the clinical manifestations mentioned above.

Children with growth hormone (GH)-secreting lesions that do not respond to transsphenoidal surgery and radiation) thus it can be managed with dopamine agonists, such as cabergoline.

The duration of treatment is controversial. Its suppression can lead to tumor re-expansion and the reappearance of the clinical picture. Some authors propose a 5-year treatment, and suspension in those patients in whom prolactin levels have normalized and the pituitary image has disappeared. Rigorous control is necessary to resume treatment if necessary.

Cabergoline For Sale Online

For further studies with Cabergoline buy here today. We provide a first-class service from easy online ordering to fast shipping. Our research products are clinically tested and safe. Our products are made in the USA and have a certificate of analysis. We guarantee 100% satisfaction.


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Testagen Peptide For Sale

testagen peptideThe Testagen peptide for sale here is a dietary supplement with а synthesized testicular peptide. It normalizes the function of the testicles by reducing their peptide deficiency and restoring protein synthesis inside their cells.Testagen is a dietary supplement with а synthesized testicular peptide. It normalizes the function of the testicles by reducing their peptide deficiency and restoring protein synthesis inside their cells.

Where Can I buy Testagen?

For the highest quality Testagen you will find that Peptide Sciences have the best quality for the price.

The results of clinical studies have shown that the peptides that make up Testagen have a positive effect on metabolic processes in the cells of the testicles and improve the functions of the male reproductive system.

It is advisable to use Testagen to restore sexual function in men after infectious and inflammatory diseases, to prevent the negative effects on reproductive function of harmful environmental factors, including vibration, ionizing radiation, the toxic effects of alcohol and certain drugs.

What Makes Testagen Peptide So Good?

Testagen peptide is one of the best new peptides that have recently emerged over the past 5 years. Scientists now know the benefits to this drug and how it could completely eradicate male infertility forever!


The use of Testagen increases the effectiveness of complex treatment of male infertility and menopausal symptoms in men; contributes to the preservation and maintenance of the functional activity of the male reproductive system at an optimal level in adulthood and old age.

Testagen is a source of peptides that improve sexual function in men.

The results of clinical studies have shown that the peptides that make up Testagen have a positive effect on metabolic processes in the cells of the testicles and improve the functions of the male reproductive system.

It is advisable to use Testagen to restore sexual function in men after infectious and inflammatory diseases, to prevent the negative effects on reproductive function of harmful environmental factors, including vibration, ionizing radiation, the toxic effects of alcohol and certain drugs.


short peptides to restore the function of the male reproductive system

Restoration of men’s health? Confidently.

Men’s health problems are closely related to the state of reproductive function. Fatigue, reduced physical and mental performance, memory loss, sudden hot flashes, irritability, sexual weakness are some of the signs of hormonal changes. Testagen helps to get rid of disturbing symptoms.

Highly recommended:

• with a decrease in the function of the testes

• male infertility due to impaired spermatogenesis, after exposure to various toxic factors, including after exposure to ionizing radiation

• climacteric syndrome in men


• regulates metabolic processes in the testicles

• enhances the functional activity and motility of spermatozoa

• improves the trophism of the organs of the male reproductive system

• helps prevent morpho-functional changes in tissues

including at the first signs of hormonal changes in men


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P21 Nootropic Peptide for Neurogenesis

P21 Nootropic PeptideP21 Nootropic Peptide  is a research peptide from CNTF (Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor), a polypeptide hormone and a neurotrophic factor. It promotes neurotransmitter synthesis and neurogenesis (creation of neurons).

However, unlike natural CNTF, P21 is more stable and can cross the blood-brain barrier. The development of this P21 is through a process called epitope mapping, which uses antibodies to identify target binding sites.

P21 is from the most active region of CNTF (residues from amino acid section 148-151). Glycine-adamantyl was added to the C-terminus to increase the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and increase its stability.

How does the P21 work?

P21 has several positive effects on the central nervous system. But its primary impact is on the dentate gyrus. Here it acts to enhance neurogenesis and neuronal maturation in the brain.

The dentate gyrus is in the hippocampal formation in the brain’s temporal lobe. It contributes to the generation of new episodic memories, and spontaneous learning occurs in new environments. In addition, it also plays a vital role in information processing.

Although P21 is similar to a CNTF mimetic, research in animal models shows that P21 does not bind directly to the CNTF receptor. Studies suggest that peptide P21 does not act strictly as an analog of CNTF. Instead, its action is more of an inhibitor of antibodies or other molecules that neutralize CNTF.

P21 Nootropic Peptide for Alzheimer’s

P21 has shown to be a promising treatment for specific neurological conditions, especially Alzheimer’s, a disease that causes memory loss, changes in mood, and impaired ability to move, among other symptoms.

In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), neurons and specific brain regions atrophy are lost. Before this damage, the brain’s natural reaction translates into increased activity in the dentate gyrus.

Unfortunately, aging and AD-affected brains cannot promote neurogenesis. Therefore, increased activity in the dentate gyrus does not lead to the creation of new neurons to replace neurons affected by the disease.

At this point, we can talk about P21 and its positive effects; this peptide increases the activity of the dentate gyrus so that it overcomes this limitation. It helps to change the balance of neurotrophic factors toward creating new neurons and neurogenesis.

Scientific research shows that the neurotrophic support by P21 leads to increased levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4. At the same time, you are decreasing the mitogenic effect of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2).

Interestingly, the administration of P21 before the onset of Alzheimer’s disease in animal models prevents the cognitive deterioration that usually occurs with this disease. Study results suggest that P21 could be even more important as a preventative than a potential treatment for Alzheimer’s disease.

Studies suggest that many drugs against Alzheimer’s do not work because they are prescribed too late when cognitive decline is very advanced.

The importance of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Alzheimer’s

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic factors essentially increase the neurogenesis and downregulation of certain enzymes. It is responsible for the formation of tau and amyloid plaques in the brains of patients with Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s.

Specifically, BDNF decreases the activity of the GSK3-beta protein, which catalyzes both amyloid-beta formation and tau protein phosphorylation, both of which cause the development of Alzheimer’s disease leading to inflammation and neurodegeneration.

It is worth noting that overproduction of GSK-3 beta shows in many disease processes, including type 2 diabetes, several forms of cancer, and bipolar disorder.

Knowing then that P21 can increase BDNF, it follows that limiting amyloid deposition in the brain may not be the only way to fight Alzheimer’s disease, which is one of the current treatments for AD.
Although plaque deposition begins early in Alzheimer’s disease, it is not until later in life that the effects of the deposition become apparent. The reason is the neurotrophic factor balance shifts away from neurogenesis.

Thus, combined with early detection through clinical biomarkers, P21 may offer the first real opportunity neuroscience has had to slow or even stop the progression of neurodegeneration.

A professor of neurochemistry at the New York State Institute for Basic Research explains:
“The problem in Alzheimer’s disease is an imbalance between neuronal death and neurogenesis.”

P21, the most potent nootropic peptide for neurogenesis

P21 shows promise as a treatment against neurodegeneration
The promising neurological effects of P21
There is hope that peptide P21 and other inhibitors of GSK3-beta may be helpful in the treatment of stroke, cancer, and especially bipolar disorder.

Also studies show P21 increases the activity of:

Synapsin I, an important protein for communication between neurons
GluR1 (AMPA receptor), a receptor that mediates fast transmission
NR1, a glutamate receptor associated with synaptic plasticity and learning

So, thanks to these effects, plus P21’s potential to promote neurogenesis, the researchers conclude that P21 may help restore cognitive function in diseased brains and stimulate this critical function in healthy brains.

Therefore, while research to confirm its full benefits must translate to animal models and future human trials, P21 already shows that it can be helpful as a nootropic and performance enhancer for cognitive tasks.

Cerebrolysin vs. P21

There is a myth in the world of nootropics that says that the peptide P21 is a derivative of Cerebrolysin, but the reality is very different.

As we have already said, P21 is a synthetic analog of the Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor, and this is only one of several components of Cerebrolysin. P21 has four amino acids from CNTF and an adamantane group added to improve the bioavailability and stability of the compound.

Therefore, P21 can best define as a synthetic and modified analog of one of the individual components of Cerebrolysin. Cerebrolysin in small amounts also provides essential cognitive benefits.

Nootropic Peptides for Research

For cognitive decline, Cerebrolysin is an effective initial treatment. Unfortunately, this benefit diminishes over time by high levels of exogenous CNTF. It promotes the production of autoantibodies that backfire on the body if the medicine is used too often.

It is worth noting that P21 is more effective than Cerebrolysin in preventing cognitive decline in animal studies.

In fact, Cerebrolysin has pretty much been abandoned as a long-term treatment because it causes the production of autoantibodies against CNTF. Thus, eventually not only becomes ineffective, it actually makes things worse.

The reason that cerebrolysin is antigenic (antibody-generating) is that it is a purified porcine product. So, the human body regards it as a foreign agent and rejects it if used continuously.

P21 removes CNTF antibodies, leading to increased efficacy of native CNTF and increased neurogenesis.

Nootropic users who have used Cerebrolysin report very positive effects

  • on mental clarity
  • information processing
  • stress levels

However, these effects seem to diminish with each new cycle.

By comparison, the immediate effects of Peptide P21 are often not felt as strong as those of Cerebrolysin. However, its mid- and long-term effects are much more consistent.

Conclusion P21 Nootropic Peptide for Neurogenesis

P21 is a peptide of great interest. While it has currently only been tested in animal models, the potential in humans is very promising. There is potential treatment for cognitive impairment, and for its ability to strengthen cognition in healthy individuals.

<<Buy P21 in our store TODAY>>


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Anti-Aging Peptides: Why are they so Effective on Skin?

Anti-Aging PeptidesAnti-Aging Peptides: Why are they so effective against wrinkles? Scientific studies have shown promising results in skincare using peptides, as they have excellent anti-aging properties, can strengthen the skin barrier, and contribute to a more youthful appearance.

Do Peptides Work for Wrinkles?

When amino acids join together, they create peptides, which, in turn, make proteins. Peptides are, therefore, the “building blocks” of proteins. These molecular connections occur in the human, plant, and animal cells and are part of connective tissue, hair, and nails.

In beauty, peptides are considered an excellent active against wrinkles and other signs of aging. Its effect encourages the body to stimulate and improve functions such as cell growth, while clinical studies have confirmed the impact on skin renewal. Cosmetic products containing peptides are perfect for caring for mature skin from 35. Regular anti-aging products make skin look younger and fresher with everyday use. Therefore, we recommend the continued use of peptide-containing products because they are well tolerated and suitable for all skin types.

Are Peptides Good for Anti-Aging?

Anti-Aging Peptide Benefits include:

-It stimulates collagen production
-improves skin elasticity
-strengthens the skin’s natural barrier
-reduces the depth and width of wrinkles
-ensures soft and smooth skin
-Reduce expression lines
-fights free radicals
-increases skin hydration

Best Peptides for Skin

1. Paula’s Choice Peptide Booster
It contains eight essential peptides to give your skin everything it needs for a radiant, plump and healthy appearance and stimulates skin peptides like keratin, collagen, and elastin. Thanks to the highly effective combination, moisture loss, wrinkles, and dark spots reduce.

2. True North De-Stressed Tonic 1.2
De-Stressed Tonic 1.2 This product cleanses, moisturizes, and softens the skin thanks to the patented aloe vera complex. Hyaluronic acid provides intense hydration and leaves the skin pleasantly smooth. The main ingredient is Syn-Tacks, a combination of peptides that stimulate cell proteins.

3. Collagen Management Contour Lift Ampoules by Dr. Temt
This highly concentrated serum inactive ingredients has a visible firming effect on the contour of the complexion and provides the skin with high hydration. The intensive formula contains peptides that form collagen and elastin, and hyaluronic acid, which are the essential components of skin collagen. Vitamin C helps double the effects of peptides that induce collagen and elastin production.

Do Peptides Make You Look Younger?

Peptides are a potent weapon for skincare. They have started strongly, and the results are such that those who try them recommend them to their acquaintances.

Sustained-release peptides, amino-acids combine with highly purified hyaluronic acid, and makes a mixture that repairs, regenerates, and densifies.  Depending on the peptide used, it eliminates double chin, eye bags and even whitens the skin, removing blemishes.

These new molecules, which are natural and healthy, are the latest in aesthetic medicine. They manage to solve several causes that motivate us to go to a clinic, making us look and feel better.

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Latest Research in Arteriosclerosis

Latest Research in Arteriosclerosis

Positive news surrounds the latest research in Arteriosclerosis and could this be a hint that this disease of the white matter could be soon treatable via modern methods?

Where Can I Buy Peptides for Arteriosclerosis?

There are so many sellers out there that promise to supply the best purity peptides for research, however knowing who we can trust is another matter.

Our preferred seller is Peptide Sciences. They have a long history in the makeup and supplying of very high standard peptide liquids and capsules. Peptide Sciences have one of the biggest peptides range to be found anywhere in the United States! Visit Peptide Sciences store now!

So what’s new in the Latest research in Arteriosclerosis?

The proteins that we take through the diet provide us with the necessary amino acids for the development and maintenance of the cells and tissues of our body. Currently, dietary proteins are investigated not only from the nutritional or functional point of view, but also as raw material for obtaining peptides , 1 since any source of dietary protein is likely to provide functional peptides. However, we must be critical regarding its use, despite the fact that in some cases its functionality is not something new, since the existence of proteins in breast milk that contribute to the maturation and function of the immune system in the newborn it is a known fact for more than 50 years 2–4 .

What is Arteriosclerosis and Atherosclerosis?

These functional or bioactive peptides are defined as inactive amino acid sequences within the precursor protein, which exert certain biological activities after their release by chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis 5 . Generally, they are small peptides, from 3 to 20 amino acids, although on some occasions they can exceed this length, which are released during the industrial processing of food, or during gastrointestinal digestion 6,7 . After oral administration, bioactive peptides can exert their effect, among others, on the cardiovascular, digestive, immune and nervous systems 8,9. The scientific literature shows that these peptides can cross the intestinal epithelium and reach peripheral tissues via the systemic circulation, being able to exert specific functions at the local level, in the gastrointestinal tract and at the systemic level. Within these activities, bioactive peptides could influence cell metabolism and act as vasoregulators, growth factors, hormone inducers and neurotransmitters 10 .

Bioactive peptides in food

As mentioned above, bioactive peptides are nothing more than a small sequence of amino acids encrypted in proteins; It is therefore to be expected, due to the wide range of protein foods existing in nature and especially on the market, that their intake is ensured with a balanced diet. However, their bioavailability is not so clear, since they must be released from the proteins in which they are found after undergoing the action of gastric and intestinal proteases and must be able to cross the intestinal epithelium and reach peripheral tissues through blood circulation to be able to exert its action 9–13 .

latest research in Arteriosclerosis 2022

In recent years, due to the great relevance that these peptides have obtained in the market, techniques have been developed to obtain new bioactive peptides from food proteins by means of in vitro enzymatic digestion, using proteolytic enzymes of microbial origin 12 . Moreover, recent studies have obtained modified peptides, designed from natural peptides, in order to increase the activity of the latter 14 .

Difference of Atherosclerosis and Arteriosclerosis

In this way, proteins from different origins (animal and vegetable) have been used for the isolation of peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates 9,15,16 , being interesting to note that depending on the protein source, the type of enzyme used and the processing conditions, the biological activity and the peptides obtained is different 17 . Among the proteins of plant origin from which bioactive peptides have been isolated, we find soy, wheat, corn, rice, barley and sunflower proteins 17 . Regarding proteins of animal origin, milk and other dairy products are the most studied bioactive peptide precursors, although these peptides have also been identified in egg ovalbumin 9, in meat 9 , in fish muscle (sardine, tuna, bonito) 18 and in royal jelly 19 .

Beneficial properties of bioactive peptides

Antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties
The association between nutrition and immunity has long been recognized. There are studies that show that bioactive peptides derived from different protein sources exert immunomodulatory effects in vitro and in vivo . However, most studies focus on evaluating the effect of peptides and hydrolysates of specific proteins on the immune system, and only a limited number of investigations examine their impact on nonspecific (innate) immunity. Immunomodulatory peptides are naturally released from the proteins that contain them during the digestion process in the gastrointestinal tract, which affects the immune response and cell function in it.

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The most studied bioactive peptides with antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties are those that come from milk and dairy products . This effect seems to be related to the net positive charge of these peptides, which are structurally organized and cause the formation of ion channels in the membrane of microorganisms 21 , altering their permeability and causing cell death 22 .

ovotransferrin are found in milk and also in eggs. Both transferrins have antibacterial activity against a wide variety of microorganisms. This activity can be exerted through at least three different mechanisms 23–25 :

Sequestering iron and preventing its use by bacteria.

Producing alterations in the bacterial wall.

By stimulating phagocytosis by macrophages and monocytes.

Bioactive peptides with antimicrobial activity exert an inhibitory effect on target microorganisms also through interaction with anionic intracellular components such as DNA and RNA, which inhibits protein synthesis and cell division of microorganisms. On the other hand, some peptides are involved in autolytic activation in target microorganisms 26 .

Peptides derived from milk caseins also show in vitro antimicrobial activity against a wide range of microorganisms, including Staphylococcus spp and Streptococcus pyogenes . In vivo studies show protective effects of israicin (derived from casein) against S. aureus and Candida albicans in mice and against mastitis in cattle and sheep 27,28 .

It has also been described that lactoferrin is capable of inhibiting the replication of viruses such as type I T-cell leukemia, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis C virus or type I herpes simplex virus 14 .

What is Lysozyme

Lysozyme, also present in milk and eggs, has antimicrobial and immunoregulatory activity, being able to improve chronic sinusitis and normalize the humoral and cellular response in patients with chronic bronchitis when combined with immunotherapy. In addition, it improves the immune response in immunosuppressed cancer patients. It has been suggested that the immunomodulation produced by lysozyme may be the result of stimulation of phagocytic function and hydrolysis of peptidoglycan products that may act as adjuvants or immunomodulators 25,29–31 .

Other foods, although not as studied as dairy products, also contain peptides with immunomodulating activity, as is the case of royal jelly from which peptides have been isolated that stimulate the proliferation of human monocytes, 32 peptides derived from rice proteins and soy that stimulate non-specific immune systems 33 and peptides from buckwheat and pepper 34,35 .

Opioid activity
Peptides with opiate activity, also called exorphins, are defined as peptides that have affinity for opiate receptors and act, by binding to receptors, as exogenous modulators of intestinal motility, epithelial permeability and hormone release. These peptides have been isolated from cereals, milk and animal tissues 11.

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The most studied opioid peptides are those derived from milk proteins (caseins) 11,14 . Once absorbed, these peptides can travel to the brain and other organs and exert pharmacological activities similar to morphine or opium. This may be why human newborns generally become calm and sleepy after drinking milk. In contrast to the casomorphins, some peptides produced by the breakdown of κ-casein can act as opioid antagonists, that is, they can inhibit the effect of substances such as morphine 36 .

In adult humans, the effects of these peptides are usually limited to the gastrointestinal tract, as they are either not absorbed or escape enzymatic degradation in the intestinal wall 37 . However, there are studies that suggest that some of them (β-casomorphins) can be transported from the blood to the brain stem 38 and to the cardiovascular system in infants 37 .

Milk Peptides Work

Milk peptides may participate in appetite regulation, modifying the endocrine activity of the pancreas to increase insulin production 39 . Studies in rats indicate that β-casomorphins can modulate food intake, stimulating fat intake and reducing the intake of diets rich in carbohydrates 40 . In this sense, also some peptides derived from wheat gluten administered intravenously and orally in rats gave rise to postprandial stimulation of insulin release 41 .

Part of the function of the casomorphins could be the reduction of intestinal motility, which would allow the maximum production of other bioactive peptides 42 . In adult humans, opiate fragments have been detected in the intestinal content after ingestion of cow’s milk 43 , but not detected, however, in the blood serum. The confirmation in man of the effects detected in experimental animals would open a new field of application of these opiate peptides in the prevention and treatment of intestinal disorders.

Antioxidant activity
Antioxidants are not only important in preventing oxidation in foods, but also at a physiological level. Free radicals are molecules that are in continuous formation in cells and are naturally neutralized by the body’s antioxidant defenses. However, there are factors that produce an imbalance in the number of free radicals, and an excess of these can lead to cell aging or the development of diseases 44 . All this has led to the search for natural antioxidant compounds to prevent oxidation by free radicals.

The study of antioxidant peptides present in foods has been a challenge in recent years, having identified numerous peptides that have antioxidant activity in different foods 45,46 and in derivatives of them, such as gelatin hydrolysates 47 , egg white hydrolysates 48 and dairy products 49 , among others. These peptides act by preventing other molecules from binding to oxygen, by reacting-interacting faster with free radicals than with the rest of the molecules present in a certain microenvironment of the plasma membrane, cytosol, nucleus or extracellular fluid 50 .

Antihypercholesterolemic activity
Hyperlipidemia, especially hypercholesterolemia, is one of the most important risk factors contributing to the development of cardiovascular diseases.

It has recently been shown that soy peptides may be responsible, at least in part, for its hypocholesterolemic activity, since it has been observed that soy protein hydrolysates showed a greater decrease in plasma cholesterol than intact soy protein 51 .

This hypocholesterolemic effect of bioactive peptides is attributed to two actions:

Bioactive peptides inhibit cholesterol absorption, possibly due to the repression of the micellar solubility of cholesterol 52 .

Some peptides can upregulate LDL receptors, which are chronically suppressed by hypercholesterolemia or dietary cholesterol administration 53 .

In addition to peptides derived from soybeans, other bioactive peptides with a hypocholesterolemic effect have been obtained from B – Lactoglobulin, pork protein hydrolyzate 54,55 and vegetable protein (Brassica carinata) 56 .

Peptides with activity on the cardiovascular system
The main described effects of bioactive peptides on the cardiovascular system are related to their antithrombotic and antihypertensive activity.

Antithrombotic activity


Platelet aggregation is a critical step in thrombus formation and is mediated by the binding of fibrinogen and its receptor, the platelet membrane glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa, which involves the recognition of the sequence Arg-Gli-Asp ( RGD) of fibrinogen. It is conceivable, therefore, that peptides containing the RGD sequence may be capable of antagonizing fibrinogen coupling to GPIIb/IIIa, resulting in inhibition of platelet aggregation. In the RGD sequence, a cationic unit, in this case the guanidino group from the side chain of Arg and the β-carboxylic acid backbone of Asp, is required for inhibitory activity. Furthermore, the distance between these cationic and anionic functional groups is an important factor in potency. Fibrinogen binds to GPIIb/IIIa sites.57 . Therefore, peptides that are fibrinogen antagonists and bind GPIIb/IIIa are useful in the prevention of thrombosis and in post-angioplasty or post-thrombolytic treatment regimens.

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The main isolated peptides with antithrombotic activity are present in milk. At the molecular level, the coagulation of blood and milk show great similarity. In milk, the coagulation mechanism is defined by the interaction of k-casein with chymosin, and the blood coagulation process is defined by the interaction of fibrinogen with thrombin.

Certain peptide sequences of κ-CN, called casoplatelins, are similar to the fibrinogen γ chain 58 . Peptides derived from bovine κ-CN have been shown in vitro to be inhibitors of platelet aggregation and of the binding of the γ chain of human fibrinogen to the specific receptor on the platelet membrane 59 . These peptides are capable of binding to specific receptors located on the surface of platelets, thus preventing thrombus formation.

Peptides derived from lactoferrin also have antithrombotic activity through another mechanism different from that of casein, inhibiting, in a dose-dependent manner, platelet aggregation induced by ADP, due to the homology with the fragment f(572-575) of the fibrinogen α chain 60 . It has been shown in vivo that this fragment inhibits the formation of thrombi in the coronary artery of dogs 61 and prolongs the bleeding time in the mesenteric artery of hamsters 62 .

In the plasma of newborns fed with breast milk or infant formulas made with cow’s milk, peptide sequences have been found in sufficient concentration to exert the antithrombotic effect in vivo, which demonstrates their release from milk proteins during the process of gastrointestinal digestion 63 . More recent studies have shown the presence of antithrombotic peptides in the stomach, duodenum, and later in the blood of adults who had ingested milk or yogurt 63 .

Antihypertensive activity
Hypertension is the leading cause of disease in industrialized countries. 35% of mortality in these countries is due to this disease or one of its renal, cardiac or cerebral complications. Due to this, foods that present peptides with antihypertensive activity are of great interest.

The most studied antihypertensive mechanism as activity of bioactive peptides is the inhibition of the activity of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). ACE is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin I (decapeptide) to angiotensin II (octapeptide).

Angiotensin II is a compound with high vasoconstrictor power. Its action causes the rapid contraction of the arterioles and, therefore, the increase in blood pressure, since it stimulates the secretion of aldosterone by the adrenal glands, a hormone that induces the excretion of potassium and the retention of sodium and water and causes the increase in extracellular volume, and neutralization of renin production. Renin releases the decapeptide angiotensin I from the renin-angiotensin system. This system is perhaps the most important of the different vasoconstrictor and vasodilator mechanisms involved in the regulation of blood pressure 64 .

ACE acts simultaneously on the kinin-kallikrein system catalyzing the degradation of bradykinins, compounds with a powerful vasodilator action, and in this way increases blood pressure. The increased availability of bradykinins due to ACE inhibition may be partially responsible for the beneficial effect of ACE inhibition on blood pressure.

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Some works have focused on the production and isolation of ACE-inhibiting peptides from proteins from different foods 65–67 . Some authors have found that, in fermented products, peptides with ACE inhibitory activity could also have antioxidant activity, suggesting the presence of multifunctional activity in these compounds 68,69. Exogenous competitive inhibitors of this enzyme have been sought from different sources (fish, corn, gelatin, snake venom, wine, etc.). The origin of these protein sources encompasses both the plant kingdom and the animal kingdom. Competitive inhibitors compete with the substrate for the active site of the enzyme. In this case, the increase in the concentration of the substrate leads to a decrease in the ability of the inhibitor to compete with it. On the other hand, non-competitive inhibitors bind to the enzyme in a zone other than the active center, deforming it, in such a way that it prevents the bond with the substrate, this type of inhibition being independent of the substrate concentration. Depending on the type of inhibitor, competitive or non-competitive inhibition can occur 65 .

Several endogenous peptides that act as inhibitors and competitive substrates of ACE have been identified, such as enkephalins, bradykinins and substance P. Extracts from Bothrops jararaca snake venom were studied as the first exogenous ACE inhibitors . Currently, a synthetic derivative, captopril (D-3-mercapto-2-methylpropanoyl-1-proline; IC50=0,006μM), obtained after studying the hypothetical model of the enzyme’s active site, is the most widely used drug in the control of hypertension .

Another of the enzymes involved in the regulation of blood pressure is the endothelin converting enzyme (ECE). This enzyme catalyzes the formation of endothelin-1 from its precursor. Endothelin-1 is a powerful vasoconstrictor, which favors the increase in blood pressure; therefore, inhibition of ECE produces an antihypertensive effect. Peptides that inhibit this enzyme have only been described from a digestive hydrolyzate of bonito 71 , but the high content and wide variety of proteins present in milk could open a new field of study aimed at identifying dairy peptides with this activity. .

During the last 20 years, many ACE-inhibiting peptides with in vivo antihypertensive properties have been identified in foods.

ACE inhibitor peptides in dairy
A large number of ACE-inhibiting peptides have been isolated from dairy products (cheese, milk, fermented milk…). Some of them have shown antihypertensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive experimental animals and in patients with hypertension. Table 1 shows the antihypertensive activity of different milk proteins.

Tabla 1.
ACE inhibitory activity of milk proteins

Protein peptide fragment ECA IC50μmol/l
α s1 -casein f(25-27) 2,0
α s2 -casein f(174-179) 4,3
β-casein f(74-76) 5,0
κ-caseina f(185-190) 52,0
α-lactoalbumin f(104-108) 77,0
β-lactoglobulina f(142-148) 42,6
Fuente: FitzGerald et al 76

ACE IC 50 : concentration of peptide that inhibits the activity of the angiotensin converting enzyme at 50%.

Maruyama and Suzuki 72 were the first to isolate an ACE-inhibiting peptide (called CEI 12) from a casein hydrolyzate (dodecapeptide, IC50=77μM). Subsequently, other ACE-inhibiting peptides have been isolated from different dairy products, especially fermented dairy products.

Yamamoto et al 73 have shown that milks fermented with L. helveticus are the ones that exhibit the greatest ACE inhibitory activity, due to the high extracellular proteolytic activity of this strain. Other peptides with inhibitory activities have been identified in milks fermented by Lactobacillus delbrueckii sp . bulgaricus or Lactobacillus lactis sp . cremoris 74 and in kefir, a fermented milk prepared from a culture broth that includes lactic acid bacteria, a strain of Saccharomyces kefir and some species of acetic acid bacteria, although in this the ACE inhibitory activity is low 75. It appears that the peptides found in kefir are not the main substances involved in its antihypertensive effects.

Studies carried out on cheeses have shown a strong ACE inhibitory activity observed after a protease digestion process 76 . The proteolysis that takes place during cheese ripening could increase the rate of ACE inhibitory activity to a certain level, beyond which this inhibitory activity decreases 77 due to the transformation of bioactive peptides into inactive molecules and amino acids 78 . The optimum ripening time for the production of bioactive peptides is different for each type of cheese. As an example, we could talk about 8 months for a Manchego type cheese 79 .

Table 2 80 shows some of the products that exist on the market and that offer claims about the reduction of blood pressure in humans, the doses used and the initial blood pressure of the subjects in the studies.

Tabla 2.
Clinical studies with dairy products and peptides that have an antihypertensive effect in humans

Product Active component (dose) Initial blood pressure of the subjects Effect on systolic blood pressure
Calpis (fermented milk) IPP (1,04 mg)VPP (1,42 mg) hypertensive –9.4 mmHg (4 weeks)–14.1 mmHg (8 weeks)
Calpis (fermented milk) IPP (1,15 mg)VPP (1,98 mg) average hypertension –4.3 mmHg (2 weeks)–5.2 mmHg (4 weeks)
Ameal peptide (hydrolyzed caseins) IPP+VPP (1,8 mg)IPP+VPP (2,5 mg)IPP+VPP (3,6 mg) High normal blood pressure Moderate hypertension –6.3 mmHg (6 weeks)–6.7 mmHg (6 weeks)–10.1 mmHg (6 weeks)
Evolution/Kaiku Vitabrand (leche fermentada) IPP (2,25 mg)VPP (3-3,75 mg) moderate hypertension –14.9 mmHg (8 weeks)
Evolution/Kaiku Vitabrand (leche fermentada IPP (2,25 mg)VPP (3-3,75 mg) hypertensive –6.7 mmHg (21 weeks)
Evolution/Kaiku Vitabrand (leche fermentada) IPP (2,4-2,7 mg)VPP (2,4-2,7 mg) moderate hypertension –16 mmHg (8-10 weeks)–11 mmHg (5-7 weeks)
Biozate 1 (whey protein hydrolyzate) 20 g of hydrolyzate hypertensive –11 mmHg (-7mmHg DBP) compared to control.
Source: López Fandiño 77 .

Peptides derived from marine products
Some ACE-inhibiting peptides have been obtained by enzymatic protein digestion from tuna muscle protein 81 , sardine muscle 82 , dried bonito 83 , algae 84 and other marine products.

Some protein hydrolysates have shown effects in vitro (via ACE inhibition) and in vivo (antihypertensive effects) ( table 3 ). The administration of a bonito muscle hydrolyzate to spontaneously hypertensive rats has made it possible to suppress hypertension after a period of five weeks of treatment using a dose of 15 to 60mg / kg 60 .

Tabla 3.
Hydrolyzed marine products with antihypertensive activity

Fuente IC 50 Dose ΔPS (mmHg)
Bonito 29μg m.s/ml 15mg/kg/day –23 after 7 weeks
Tuna 0,63μg p/ml 5,000mg/kg/day –65 after 16 days
Sardine 27,1 mg/g 117 mg/kg/ –33 after 1 hour
Algal hydrolysates are also an important source of biologically active peptides, some of which have been identified as exhibiting ACE-inhibitory activities ( table 3 ). These results may partly explain the antihypertensive effects observed in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) 83,85 . Other ACE inhibitory peptides have been identified in fish hydrolysates, but very few have been evaluated in vivo .

Vegetable products
ACE-inhibiting peptides have been found in many plant sources, including soybeans 9 , wheat germ 86 and chickpeas 87 .

A hexapeptide was isolated from wheat gluten which showed antagonistic activity towards angiotensin I in vivo . Recently, a gluten hydrolyzate has reduced blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats 2h after intravenous administration 88 .

Hydrolysis of rapeseed proteins revealed that the presence of ACE inhibitory peptides can show an antihypertensive effect in vivo . This hydrolyzate, administered to SHR rats, significantly reduces blood pressure 2h after oral administration (0.15g/kg) 89 . The antihypertensive effect of a soy regimen when administered to SHR 90 rats has also been demonstrated . In the same way, the digestion of the main storage proteins of chickpea seeds produces ACE-inhibiting peptides 91 .

Other sources
Oshima et al 91 were the first to identify ACE-inhibiting peptides from dietary proteins. In recent years, studies have been carried out describing the existence of peptides with antihypertensive activity in other food sources, such as pork and chicken muscle, eggs, garlic, gelatin, sake, wine, bacterial autolysates, liver, squid, mushrooms, royal jelly and some fruits and teas 11.92 . However, the information on bioactive peptides generated from the proteins of these foods is still limited.

At present, some peptides with vasodilator and ACE-inhibitory activity have been described, which come from hydrolyzed ovalbumin with different enzymes. For example, chronic administration (12 weeks) to SHR rats of an egg yolk hydrolyzate has eliminated the development of hypertension at doses of 20, 100, and 500mg/kg administered orally daily. Higher doses administered to animals have decreased mean systolic and diastolic pressures by about 10% compared to control animals 93 .

Bioavailability of bioactive peptides
The potential hypotensive effect of ACE-inhibiting peptides depends on their ability to reach the organs where they are going to perform their function intact. As has already been mentioned, many studies have been carried out in which the ACE inhibitor activity of these peptides is evaluated, but it is difficult to establish a direct relationship between the capacity to inhibit ACE in vitro and the antihypertensive activity in vivo . The study of the bioavailability of bioactive peptides is essential when designing functional foods with physiological properties 94 . It is known that dipeptides and tripeptides can be transported through the intestinal mucosa, although there is also evidence that larger peptides can be absorbed in the small intestine.63 . It has been shown, therefore, that some peptides with ACEI and antihypertensive activity are capable of being absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, accumulating in various organs, so they could exert their mechanism of action systemically 19 . However, it is postulated that certain antihypertensive peptides may not be absorbed in the intestinal tract, exerting a direct function in the intestinal lumen, or they may exert their function through interaction with receptors found in the intestinal wall.

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Once absorbed, the high number of peptidases found in the blood means that the time during which certain peptides remain stable in the plasma is very short. However, there is some evidence that peptides with ACE inhibitor activity can be absorbed in the digestive tract and transported through the bloodstream without being hydrolyzed by blood proteases 13 .


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The Hunt for SARS-CoV-2 Signature Peptides!

SARS-CoV-2 peptidesResearchers have identified SARS-CoV-2 signature peptides using proteomics. A “shortlist” of 14 peptides makes it possible to envisage developments in targeted mass spectrometry for a tool of choice in detecting the virus responsible for Covid-19.

SARS-CoV-2 Structure

Fighting an epidemic such as Covid-19 requires effective, rapid means of detecting the virus and available throughout the territory. Identifying the agent responsible for the pandemic, the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and the sequencing of its genome made it possible to develop a method based on the amplification of ultra-specific nucleic acid fragments (RT- PCR) currently the reference method. The diagnostic capacities of analysis laboratories were particularly strained worldwide due to the lack of reagents for these tests at the start of the epidemic, at the crucial moment when the very rapid acceleration of infections had a substantial impact on the final assessment.

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Other methodologies that do not require specific reagents concerning the desired target can mobilize but do not yet have sufficient maturity to be deployed on a large scale.

These are nucleic acid sequencing (virus genome) and viral protein sequencing (the genome is enclosed in a protein structure, the capsid itself covered by a protein envelope). Both solutions are for the future, with the second being the subject of this study.

At CEA-Joliot, in Marcoule, the teams mobilized to record precise tandem mass spectrometry data on the proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 virus expressed in cells in culture. Exploited data from the main proteins of the virus were obtained from some 101 peptides.

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The peptides were conserved in all the variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus known to date. Those that gave the maximum signal in the mass spectrometry were considered exciting candidates. To make it reliable, the detection of the virus was the subject of a shortlist. The researchers have thus pinpointed a set of peptides that can be analyzed very quickly (shotgun proteomics).

These are encouraging results on a selection of “signature” peptides. Results obtained from the main viral proteins expressed in an in vitro system now lead the researchers to propose the validation of their methodology on hospital samples. Thus, they wish to show the usefulness of mass spectrometry as an ultra-rapid identification tool, requiring no specific reagent of the virus responsible for Covid-19 and adaptable to any pathogen.

The SARS-CoV-2 virus genome is safe inside a protein structure, the capsid itself covered with a viral envelope. These two structures make up several proteins. The peptides identify in this study come from the three main proteins of SARS-CoV-2 the Spike, S, a Membrane glycoprotein, M, and a Nucleoprotein.

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Peptide Developed to Combat Tuberculosis

Peptide Developed to Combat TuberculosisThere has emerged a Peptide developed to combat Tuberculosis and it is showing interest around the world. Iztli 1, a peptide developed at the Cellular Physiology Institute (IFC) and already patented in Mexico, could become an antibiotic to combat tuberculosis.


It was called Iztli in honor of Tezcatlipoca, a god who carried an obsidian knife, which was the sacred dagger Iztli or Tecpatl, used by the Aztecs in human sacrifices.

The Iztli peptide (IP-1), designed by Gabriel del Río and collaborators, is a molecular missile that (already tested in mice) reduces lung damage caused by tuberculosis and helps the body kill the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) .

Peptide Developed to Combat Tuberculosis – What it Means

Ending MTB is a challenge for medicine because the bacterium has evolved to avoid the defense mechanisms of macrophages (a type of immune system cell responsible for protecting the body from harmful bacteria) and has also become resistant to antibiotics in common use.

Iztli or IP-1 is made up of two amino acid sequences. One, created from brewer’s yeast, recognizes the target cells: in this case the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pheromone . The other complements the first to generate a sequence with antimicrobial activity.

It was tested in brewer’s yeast cells because, like human cells, they are eukaryotes and share similar genes with us.

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Del Río discovered that the combination of his two attributes: being a hunter and a murderer at the same time, gives the Iztli 1 peptide other emergent properties. In mammalian cells and microscopic fungi such as yeast, it activates autophagy, a natural process to deal with MTB infection.

Autophagy eliminates damaged parts of the cell and the bacteria that invade its interior. Thus, the Iztli 1 peptide, by activating it, facilitates the natural response of macrophages to MTB infection. At the same time, the peptide is capable of directly killing MTB bacteria, so that even bacteria resistant to antibiotics or to the body’s natural response may be sensitive to this double activity of the peptide.

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As a final result, the MTB dies and the immune system repairs the damage caused by this bacteria.

That IP-1 kills MTB from within the cell while also helping to get rid of the bacteria, leads Del Río and his group to postulate that it could cure not only tuberculosis, but also other antibiotic-resistant infectious diseases. .

Currently, antibiotics that attack microbes or activate the immune system are used in the treatment of infections, but neither is designed for both targets. The Iztli 1 peptide is the first in that class of molecules.

A preclinical study, carried out by Del Río and his group in a mouse model that replicates tuberculosis, showed that Iztli does have this therapeutic activity.

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When administering IP-1 in rodents, it was observed that it reduces the damage caused by MTB: the bacteria is found in less quantity in the lungs and there are more protective cytokines (proteins of the immune system that act as regulators of the body’s immune response). .

The next phase will be to test the Iztli 1 peptide in humans to check its efficacy against antibiotic-resistant tuberculosis. With this purpose, the collaboration of the health sector is expected to initiate clinical trials.

Meanwhile, Del Río and his group are developing computational tools to design more selective peptides, with emerging properties, that can be applied, at an experimental level, in the treatment of various microbial infections and in conditions associated with aging, such as cancer.

The expectation is that IP-1 (or other molecules capable of inducing autophagy in humans) could also eliminate cell components that accumulate damage during aging, thus reducing the possibility of cancer.

How long can a TB patient live?

3.6 years is the average life expectancy of TB sufferers however some cases can see a longer life.

 The Iztli 1 peptide created at UNAM has its antecedents in the hunter-killer peptides created in the United States for cancer treatment.

Del Río participated in this project, which was carried out at the Buck Institute for Research on Aging (the first institute for aging and associated diseases, created in the United States) between 1999 and 2004.

The hunter-killers are the fusion of two peptides. Hunter , which selectively recognizes a tissue, is coupled with killer , which is a selective antibacterial cationic peptide (SCAP).

The killer , says Del Río, kills the cell by damaging the activity of the mitochondria, which is for the cell like the Federal Electricity Commission for Mexico: generator of energy.

In humans, antibacterial peptides (amino acid sequences) function as a protective barrier against infection. “They are our bullets.”

Most are cationic: they have a positive charge, so they prefer to bind to the membrane of bacteria or mitochondria, which is electro-negative.

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Iztli 1 peptide one is a smaller molecule compared to hunter-killer peptides . That it be a shorter version, emphasizes Del Río, favors its activity and makes its production more economical.

In the multifunctional Iztli peptides project, in addition to postgraduate students with theses under the direction of Del Río, seven groups from UNAM, the Autonomous University of the State of Mexico (UAEM), the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubirán (INCMNSZ) and the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS).

Measurement of the three-dimensional structure of the Iztli peptide, by crystallography and X-rays: Alfredo Torres (IFC).

Measurement of the secondary structure of peptides with circular dichroism: Georgina Garza (Faculty of Medicine, UNAM).

Determination of non-covalent contacts of peptide amino acid residues by nuclear magnetic resonance: Carlos Amero (UAEM).

Measurement of isolated mitochondria as in whole cells: Antonio Peña and Salvador Uribe (IFC).

Experimental design of genetics and confocal microscopy to validate the activities of Iztli peptides: Roberto Coria (IFC).

Evaluation of autophagy activity: Susana Castro (Institute of Biotechnology, UNAM).

Evaluation of antituberculosis activity in mice: Rogelio Hernández Pando (INCMNSZ) and Bruno Rivas (IMSS).

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This article looks at how to find the very best Tesofensine buy online that has a high purity guarantee without the high price. We scourced many of the well known and respected labs around the USA to find the best of the best.

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According to a Danish study, the best Tesofensine buy online is a drug against obesity works twice as well as all other drugs currently available on the market.

A newly developed active substance aims to satisfy hunger where it arises. Tesofensine suppresses feelings of hunger in the brain, write the researchers led by Arne Astrup from the University of Copenhagen in the journal “Lancet”. Subjects in a study had lost several kilograms.

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However, the nutritionist Stephan Bischoff from the University of Hohenheim warned against exaggerated expectations: “This is hopeful news, but it should be treated with great caution,” he said. “A really effective drug without major side effects has often been promised, but the promise has never been kept.” It is not yet certain whether Tesofensin will ever come onto the market.

Results of the “Fat Path Study

In a series of tests, the Danish scientists examined 203 overweight patients who weighed more than 100 kilograms on average. A quarter of the patients received an ineffective placebo daily for 24 weeks, and 50 patients each received three different amounts of tesofensine. 161 patients completed the so-called phase II study, which included a diet.

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Placebo patients had lost an average of two kilograms, those treated with tesofensine 7, 11 or 13 kilograms depending on the dose. This corresponds to a doubling of the weight loss compared to the active ingredients sibutramine and rimonabant, the researchers write. Side effects would have included nausea, constipation, insomnia, diarrhea and dry mouth.

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There are particularly high safety requirements for medicines to combat obesity, explained Bischoff. So far, not a single agent that acts centrally in the brain like tesofensine has met these requirements. According to researchers, the active ingredient blocks the absorption of hunger-triggering neurotransmitters in the brain. “A lot of hopes have been awakened that have quickly leveled out.” For example, appetite suppressants attracted attention because of their addictive potential. “Rimonabant” triggers depression.

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The drug is still on the market, but after several suicides in the USA there are already discussions about its approval. For tesofensin, it is now necessary to wait for a further investigation (phase III study) with more patients before the suitability can be assessed. Tesofensine is not an active ingredient specially developed to combat obesity. It has so far been tested in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s patients. It had been shown that the patients lost weight as a result of ingestion.