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Peptides and the Immune System

Peptides and the Immune SystemPeptides and the Immune System – Peptides are molecules containing two to tens of amino acids linked through peptide bonds. Short-chain peptides, with fewer linkages, are long known in the pet food industry as palatability enhancers. But their potential on the immune system is still being studied.


Action of peptides in the Immune System

In the immune system there are two types of response, the innate immune response, the first line of defense that is fast, but non-specific and without memory. Then there is also the acquired immune response, which is a slower response, but specific and with memory. It ensures that the individual is protected against eventual re-exposure to the same pathogen.

Within the acquired immune system we have the MHC II process (major histocompatibility complex II). It is the process responsible for antigen apprehension and presentation to helper T cells.

To activate this immune response, protein antigens and short-chain peptides must be converted and bound to the MHC, forming the MHC-peptide complex. This complex behaves as a link for specific antigen receptors, found in the T lymphocyte. It learns and encodes the antigen, expressing itself in APCs (antigen presenting cells), such as macrophages and dendritic cells.

These APCs, in turn, present antigens to helper T cells through CD4+ receptors so that they defend the organism by phagocytizing the antigen and producing antibodies.

In the MOTHES study, T (1994) investigated whether the inclusion of peptides in the diet could exert a direct effect on the expression of MHC-peptide binding. This research suggested that peptides included in the diet can positively regulate the presentation of antigens by APCs, increasing the immune stimulus on lymphocytes.

What are Peptides in Immunology?

The immune system destroys bacteria and viruses, but it also attacks other substances such as nanoparticles that are introduced to deliver drugs or devices such as pacemakers. Now, a team of researchers from the University of Pennsylvania (USA) has created a synthetic peptide capable of deceiving defenses and acting as a passport for therapeutic substances and devices.

What Protein Helps with Immune System Defense?

The immune system destroys bacteria and viruses, but it also attacks other substances such as nanoparticles that are introduced to deliver drugs or devices such as pacemakers. Now, a team of researchers from the University of Pennsylvania (USA) has created a synthetic peptide capable of deceiving defenses and acting as a passport for therapeutic substances and devices. After chemically synthesizing the peptide, the scientists attached it to conventional nanoparticles that introduced into a mouse model. The results of the research, led by Professor Dennis Discher, have been published this week in Science.

A team of scientists from the School of Engineering and Applied Science at the University of Pennsylvania (USA) has developed a synthetic peptide that allows substances to be introduced into the body without being detected and attacked by the immune system.

After chemically synthesizing the peptide, the researchers attached it to conventional nanoparticles that they introduced into a mouse model. The results of the research, led by Professor Dennis Discher, have been published this week in Science.

Diego Pantano, one of the authors of the work, explains to SINC that “this peptide will have multiple applications, among others it advances in the supply of drugs for the treatment of tumors and the use of nanoparticles to improve biomedical visualization. In general, any application that involves invisibility to the immune system will be able to benefit from it”, he underlines.

The immune system exists to destroy intruders in the body, such as bacteria and viruses. But it attacks other therapeutic elements in the same way. “From the perspective of the body, a spearhead from 1,000 years ago and a pacemaker are perceived in the same way: as an invader. With our work we seek that therapeutic devices, sutures or nanoparticles for drug delivery do not cause an inflammatory response by the immune system.

Antimicrobial Peptides Function

Macrophages, a fundamental part of the immune system, should not confuse foreign bodies with cells from the body itself. For this, the cells themselves have markers that inform these macrophages that they should not ‘eat’ them.

“Our work is the first example of a molecule that inhibits the attack of the immune system. This peptide fulfills the same role as the markers mentioned above and therefore. By being grafted onto materials foreign to our body, it prevents the immune system from quickly eliminating them. It allows them to reach the desired destination”, explains Pantano.

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The Magic of Semaglutide (GLP-1) and Tirzepatide (GLP-1/GIP)

Semaglutide and Tirzepatide (GLP-1/GIP)The Magic of Semaglutide (GLP-1) and Tirzepatide (GLP-1/GIP) is gaining interest among scientists this year. Semaglutide (GLP-1) and Tirzepatide (GLP-1/GIP). The human GLP-1 analogue Semaglutide (semaglutide) and the chimeric human/human GIP-GLP-1 analogue Tirzepatide (TZP-101) are incretin therapies that have proven clinical efficacy in both type 2 diabetes and type 1 diabetes (T1D).

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What is Semaglutide (GLP-1) and Tirzepatide

They represent a significant advance in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The first clinical results have been published of Semaglutide in monotherapy and in combination with metformin (Lilly SLE-5 study) (Keller et al. JAMA Intern Med 2015; 175:5-14 and Sato et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 2016; 375:1821-30) and in T1D (Novo Nordisk study) (Sato et al. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2016; 101:3499-3510). The results are very encouraging. In the UK, Semaglutide has recently been approved as monotherapy for type 2 diabetes, with the hope of replacing Sulfonylureas and Glucosidase inhibitors (glinides). Clinical trials are already ongoing to assess the efficacy and safety of Semaglutide as add-on therapy to metformin and as an insulin-sparing agent in T1D. In this article, we review the mechanism of action and current indications of Semaglutide and TZP-101 and discuss future directions. GLP-1 and GLP-1 R Agonists.

The first incretin therapies to be approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes were Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues and their orally active, long-lasting counterparts, the Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs). They lower blood glucose levels primarily by increasing the insulin secretion and reducing glucagon secretion. GLP-1 RAs also have important effects on beta cell mass and function. GLP-1 RAs mimic the actions of GLP-1, but they have a longer half-life, less tendency to cause hypoglycemia, and improved oral bioavailability. The mechanism of action of GLP-1 involves complex interactions between multiple neurotransmitters and other gastrointestinal hormones, including GIP and glucagon. GLP-1 RAs are a heterogeneous group of molecules and a thorough understanding of the role of each molecule and the complexity of the GLP-1 system in the pancreas is beyond the scope of this review.

GLP-1 RAs are the most commonly used incretin therapies, and the clinical effects of these molecules have been covered in many publications.1,2 However, as we review here, the molecular and clinical actions of GLP-1 and the GLP-1 RAs overlap. GLP-1 and the GLP-1 RAs do not fully mimic the action of GLP-1.

In addition to the well-characterized actions on insulin and glucagon secretion, GLP-1 and GLP-1 RAs exert some effects on energy metabolism. These include slowing gastric emptying and stimulation of adipose tissue lipolysis. GLP-1 RAs also lower food intake and slow gastric emptying, which may be beneficial in obese patients. GLP-1 RAs, in general, are well-tolerated with the exception of gastrointestinal symptoms and hypoglycemia. Most are taken once daily and do not require dose adjustments over a lifetime, unlike long-acting insulin. GLP-1 RAs are not, however, as safe as once-daily injectable insulin. Gastrointestinal side effects of GLP-1 RAs are usually mild and mostly resolve with time.

The GLP-1 RAs, in general, have a low risk of hypoglycemia, with the exception of the DPP-4 inhibitors. Hypoglycemia is a major concern of GLP-1 RAs. There have been several reports of unexpected or severe hypoglycemia associated with use of GLP-1 RAs, in particular after initiating, or after uptitrating the dose, of the GLP-1 RAs, liraglutide and lixisenatide. For the sake of safety, GLP-1 RAs are to be avoided in patients with hypoglycemia unawareness. This issue is highlighted by the recent publication of a randomized clinical trial, the DIAMOND, which showed an increase in the rate of severe hypoglycemia and a reduced event-free survival with liraglutide compared with sitagliptin.3 Gastric bypass and GLP-1 RAs: A Perfect Match. Both obesity and T2D are related to low-grade inflammation and are associated with low-grade chronic subclinical gut inflammation, which can cause symptoms, such as bloating, early satiety, or abdominal discomfort. Recent evidence suggests that GLP-1 is involved in energy regulation and the satiety process.

The Magic of Semaglutide (GLP-1) and Tirzepatide (GLP-1/GIP)

This is a key issue when treating T2D and obesity, as many T2D patients have coexisting obesity. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is an enzyme that inactivates incretins, including GLP-1 and GIP, and it is highly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. However, its expression in fat, the liver, the heart, and the brain makes DPP-4 an enzyme with a variety of biological functions. The incretin-based therapies, in general, suppress plasma DPP-4 activity. There are two classes of incretin therapies. One is the GLP-1 receptor agonists, which are small synthetic compounds that mimic the effects of GLP-1 and include exenatide (Byetta), exenatide extended release (Bydureon), liraglutide, albiglutide, semaglutide, and TZP-101 (Tirzepatide).

The other is the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GIP chimeric compound, which has a long peptide chain and is highly specific for the GLP-1 receptor. The two groups of incretin therapies show differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. With GLP-1, the drug enters the systemic circulation and achieves full biological activity (GLP-1 receptor agonism). The GLP-1 and GIP chimera is a large protein molecule.

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Triptorelin Dose Research Results

TriptorelinAll of us know how important hormones are and the vital role they play in transferring signals and information from one set of cells to another. They are secreted by one of the glands that make up the endocrine system. GnRH is one such hormone that is produced in the hypothalamus (a part of the endocrine system) region of the brain.

Isolated in the early 1970s, GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) is said to be one of the earliest of hormones to be synthesized and released within the hypothalamus. The credit of discovery goes to two Nobel laureates Guillemin and Schally.


Triptorelin Dose Product Information

GnRH or Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/Triptorelin

GnRH is a poly peptide that is made up of 10 amino acids. It is important for the production of sex hormones in the body. From the hypothalamus, it moves into the bloodstream and reaches the pituitary gland and gets attached to certain receptors. Once this happens, it triggers the gland to produce two more hormones: LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone).

These are known as the gonadotrophic hormones, which stimulate the reproductive organs to secrete Testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone.

Triptorelin Mechanism of Action

FSH stimulates the growth of eggs in the ovaries and also leads to the production of estrogen and in males. LH stimulates the production of testosterone. When estrogen is produced, it signals the pituitary gland to make more LH and release FSH more slowly. LH is responsible for the mature egg being released by the ovary. When ovulation results, there is a drop in both the hormones.

Thus we see that GnRH governs the sexual physiology of men and women. However, the GnRH secretion is different for both. GnRH secretion is pulsatile, that is- the frequency at which it is secreted varies. In males, this is secreted at a constant frequency, whereas in females the frequency varies during the menstrual cycle and just before ovulation, the production of GnRH increases.

Chemical Information

Research Triptorelin Injection Studies

Since GnRH is associated with the production of sexual hormones, it is not very active during childhood. However once puberty or adolescence is reached and the reproductive period begins, it gains momentum and plays an important role in the reproductive function. It again becomes inactive when a woman becomes pregnant. Then the activity is disrupted when the hypothalamus and pituitary glands dysfunction.

The Biochemical Process

Many neurons and neuro transmitters are involved in the regulation of GnRH neurons. Some help in the stimulation and inhibition of LH release. That is why GnRH is essentially considered a neuro- hormone.

A Guide to GnRH Antagonists and Agonists

No sooner than Guillemin and Schally discovered GnRH, they tried to modify the peptide to help stimulate and block variants for various procedures– the result was a new avenue of therapy with GnRH antagonists and agonists.

GnRH agonists and antagonists belong to a group of hormone drugs called GnRH analogues. These analogues are used in infertility treatment. The use of GnRH agonists is a big advancement in hormone therapy and is used to stop the production of testosterone and estrogen. GnRH agonist injections are given every day—these force the pituitary gland to stop producing hormones.

How GnRH Works?

GnRH antagonists are very similar to the naturally occurring hormone GnRH. It is made in the hypothalamus, but as the name suggests it has an antagonistic effect. Like GnRH it is also a peptide molecule that is made up of many amino-acids. When it binds to the GnRH receptors, it prevents GnRH from going into action. As a result it blocks the release of LH and FSH in the pituitary glands, thus suppressing the production of testosterone and estrogen. It is invaluable during fertility treatments, especially when preparing for in-vitro fertilization, when it is needed to control the amounts of LH and FSH. GnRH antagonists are usually administered in the form of an intramuscular or subcutaneous injection.

  • Shutting down the pituitary gland is essential to proceed with an infertility procedure.

Although the end result is the same, the GnRH antagonists and agonists work slightly differently. While the GnRH antagonist ensures an immediate drop in LH and FSH production, GnRH agonists take some time before they bring about a drop in the secretion of LH and FSH.

After the discovery of GnRH, any research that was done was directed toward treating infertility, but with synthetic GnRH proving to be rather resourceful, the focus of diagnosis and treatment was turned toward endocrine disorders and cancer.

Other Potential Medical Uses of GnRH

Recently there have been newspaper reports that the hypothalamus plays a role in aging and researchers were focusing on the effect of GnRH on aging. Scientists found that it was possible for GnRH to reach the brain from the periphery, indicating that the hormone could have some anti-aging properties. Of course this does require additional study, but the prospects do seem exciting.


The info provided herein is strictly for the advancement of research and disbursement of knowledge relating to GnRH (Triptorelin).

It is meant solely for any qualified researchers looking to find potential applications or possible health benefits yet to be discovered for GnRH (Triptorelin).

This post is meant for informational use only. It is in no way considered instructional. In fact, no dosage or other similar information is provided.

The facts contained herein have been gathered from various studies. These tests are conducted in sanctioned and/or controlled medical research facilities, Universities and laboratories. It is using in-vitro techniques or when approved animal and human subjects.

Due to the fact that this peptide is not approved for human consumption, we emphatically state that you should gain the necessary legal approvals prior to conducting any research on animals or humans.

The following information is meant ONLY to share results from certified tests with other qualified researchers to further the understanding of this peptide.

Our post is not to be construed as an advertisement or inducement to ingest this product. All American Peptide is opposed to the use of peptides for recreational or cosmetic use. Unless otherwise approved by the FDA or a similar governing body designated to do so.

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Tirzepatide For Sale

Tirzepatide 5mg for sale

Tirzepatide for sale, the anti-obesity drug that achieves weight loss similar to surgery.
The scientific community analyzes the new treatment capable of reducing weight by an average of 21% and which has not yet been subjected to peer review.

Where to Find Tirzepatide For Sale

Peptide Sciences are the number 1 supplier of the very best research peptides in the USA. 

18% of the United States population compared to 23% at European level suffers from obesity , a chronic disease, according to the WHO , whose consequences for health are known as an increased risk of suffering from diabetes, coronary or neurodegenerative diseases and hypertension. The scientific community has been searching for an effective anti-obesity drug for some time and is now analyzing the finding published in The New England Journal of Medicine .

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We recommend only Peptide Sciences Tirzepatide if you want the very highest quality. The purity is extremely high compared with most others.

So What Works?

It is called Tirzepatide for sale and it is an injection that you have to take every week. Up to 15 milligrams are injected. According to the data provided by the researchers, over 72 weeks an average weight loss of 21% can be achieved, the equivalent of lowering the average weight of the participants from 104 to 82 kilos. In addition, 91% of the participants lost more than 5% of their weight: 83% lost more than 10%; and 57%, more than 20%. Therefore, they managed to considerably reduce their body mass index.

The multinational responsible is Eli Lilly , to whom the data on its effectiveness belongs. The research has not yet been peer-reviewed by obesity experts.

How does tirzepatide work?

Tirzepatide acts in a double action against obesity. On the one hand, it activates the GLP-1 peptide that reduces the sensation of appetite. This is something that other treatments already did. On the other hand, it activates the peptide GIP which is believed to regulate the accumulation of fat in the body.

One of the questions that arise has to do with the duration of treatment. For now, it is believed that the treatment can be administered for a year until weight loss stabilizes and then withdraw it with the aim of maintaining it.

What are the drawbacks of tirzepatide?

In the treatment with tirzepatide, side effects have been seen to be mostly mild and transient. The most common have been nausea, which affected 31% and diarrhea in 23%. From then on, and as it is a new drug, the consequences it may have in the long term are unknown.

David Wall: “I developed an eating disorder when I was 13 years old because from the age of 9 they told me what I could eat and what not”
Another aspect to take into account has to do with the economic cost. That is, with the price at which it can go on sale. There are no estimates yet and we can only be guided by a similar drug that is already on the market. Semaglutide, from the company Novo Nordisk, costs $1,300 a month.

When can it go on sale?

2,539 volunteers have participated in the clinical trial that is now in phase 3, the last stage before sending the conclusions to the drug agencies for authorization. Keep in mind that tirzepatide is already approved in Europe and the US for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Regarding the characteristics of the participants, 67% were women with an average age of 45 years and an average weight of 104 kilos. The study included people who were moderately overweight, with a body mass index of less than 30, to people who were morbidly obese; that is, with a BMI greater than 40.

44% of Americans gained weight during confinement, according to a study by the US Obesity Society. And getting rid of those extra kilos is not easy: the survey carried out by the same society concluded that 8 out of 10 people fail in their attempt to lose weight.

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Peptides for Joint Repair

peptides for joint repairPeptides for joint repair – The use of cells to repair and replace damaged tissues or organs is an emerging field in reparative medicine. Until recently, this discipline was for repairing and restoring lost function due to disease, damage or loss of body parts and may or may not involve an in vitro component.

The material used as a substitute (vascular, abdominal, or bone prostheses) was implanted in the patient and had to integrate with the recipient’s tissue. The responses that this entails are foreign body, immunological and antigenic recognition.

The remodeling phenomenon improves the structure and function of the damaged or lost organ and tissue. It depends on a wide variety of factors; including the composition of the implanted material, the presence of a cellular component and processing methods.

Peptides for Tendon Repair

Today, reparative medicine encompasses many other disciplines: cellular and molecular biology, surgery, engineering, and chemistry, among others. The conjunction of all these fields makes it possible for the so-called living tissue engineering to emerge. It is a science that began from 2 perspectives: cell therapy and the science of biomaterials.

The union of these two aspects makes possible the design and, later, the construction of substitutes (constructs). It can repair, regenerate, functionally, and structurally replace tissue organs of patients that have lost their full functionality or been mechanically damaged or physiologically. Thus, the research controls the design of the material to its implantation and correct functioning in the recipient individual.

Finding the Best Peptides for Injury Recovery

Normal tissue is from structural and cellular components. For it to carry out its function, both components are interrelated so that one supports the other. There is a vascular network responsible for transporting different external signals (cytokines, growth factors, hormones, etc.) to the cells. These nourish and oxygenate the cells and, simultaneously, eliminating cellular waste. It is the basic model tissue engineering must build to achieve substitutes for clinical use.

Biomedical engineers have begun to develop specific techniques for synthesizing functional tissues. The great barrier to overcome is in transferring the experimental results to the large-scale production of these constructs with appropriate materials in the field of reparative medicine. The last point implies delving into the necessary methodology. It allows, on the one hand, to maintain the viable cell population in the biomaterial and, on the other, to induce its proliferation and differentiation in the appropriate environment.

For this, bioreactors have instruments capable of inducing histogenesis under certain conditions. Its large-scale use and promising results could produce three-dimensional tissues and composite tissues for repairing and regenerating damaged organs and tissues in reparative medicine.

Currently, tissue engineering is a reality in animal experimentation, with little success in human clinical practice. The results are encouraging, although it is necessary to delve into the mechanisms of tissue construction to achieve structurally and functionally replicas that can replace non-functional organs and tissues.

Peptides for Joint Repair

Cell therapy is the field with the most significant objective perspective in human clinical practice. This science is based on the therapeutic use of cellular products, among which the transfer of cells or tissues, autologous or heterologous, to damaged tissues or organs stands out. The best-known cell therapy is bone marrow transplantation to treat hematological tumors and some solid tumors.

Although the use of myoblasts in myocardial repair, the treatment of dermal ulcers and extensive burns with skin grown in vitro, the treatment of corneal ulcers and alterations of the corneal membrane with amniotic membrane, immunotherapy and, recently, the treatment of fistulas in Crohn’s disease through the use of stem cells from subdermal fat.

Currently, local defects affecting the articular cartilage of the knee are successfully repaired in clinical medicine.

Cell Therapy and Cartilage

Lesions that affect cartilage, such as osteoarthritis, entail alterations in the characteristics of the cellular and structural components. The symptomatology depends on the magnitude and location of the injury. With traditional therapeutic methods (therapeutic gymnastics and taking anti-inflammatory drugs), symptoms generally improve. In the advanced stages of articular cartilage destruction, we speak of osteoarthritis. The entire joint is swollen and cannot be fully flexed or straightened. Resting pain also occurs at this stage. The therapeutic concept depends on the magnitude and location of the cartilage lesions. In any case, we face emerging diseases and will also see more frequently every day in consultations and hospitals.

Two hundred fifty years ago, Hunter was the first to describe that damaged articular cartilage was not capable of repairing itself. Cartilage is an avascular tissue, which directly implies the normal inflammatory response.
With hemorrhage, fibrin plug formation, cellular protein synthesis and mesenchymal cell migration are absent, limiting usual self-repair processes. The factors that influence the repair process are the injury’s age, depth and damage, whether traumatic, chronic or associated with instability, a previous meniscectomy or genetic predisposition.

Peptides for Cartilage Repair

Age is a crucial factor to consider, given that the number of mesenchymal cells with the capacity to regenerate tissues decreases with age. Thus we find one in every 10,000 cells in newborns, one in every 400,000 in individuals aged 50 and, one in 2,000,000 in octogenarians. The depth of the injury also affects the repair process, superficial wounds do not penetrate the chondral surface, and there is no blood supply (inflammatory cells and fibroblasts generate a new matrix, even if it is not ideal).

Injuries from trauma will repair better than areas with degenerative defects. Structural instability and other associated pathologies are often related to irregular forces on the joint surfaces.

Current treatments such as microfracture allow the exit of stem cells to the area of ​​injury, abrasion (to create new cartilage ) or debridement.

These techniques facilitate repair by improving chondral function and symptomatology. It also favors the formation of fibrocartilage instead of regular, hyaline cartilage.

Fibrocartilage seems to be deposited by fibroblasts that reach the area of ​​injury via the bloodstream after the surgical procedure.

Other treatments such as:

-periosteal grafts
-autografts (limited by the viability of the patient’s tissue)
-osteochondral allografts, which tend to degenerate over time
-autologous transplantation of chondrocytes or chondrogenic progenitors

Whether in polymers or hydrogels, they have shown promising results in reducing pain and joint cartilage dysfunction.

Autologous chondrocyte implantation is today a reality as cell therapy in treating focal cartilage defects in the femoral condyles of the knees. We can find a wide range of products for medical use. Many are in the clinical trial phase, whose therapeutic basis is the implantation of autologous chondrocytes, alone or accompanied by different matrices.

However, this technique currently has some drawbacks: the age of the patients is critical, given that they cannot exceed 55 years.

The process requires two surgical interventions (obtaining cartilage and implanting chondrocytes). The seeding and culture of autologous chondrocytes is a long process (3-4 weeks). Patients with primary cartilage defects cannot be included in the autologous implantation program, since they lack competent cells.

These limitations can be overcome through the use of an alternative cell source. Model cells from umbilical cords can be frozen and stored. It is a methodology that may provide new clinical applications in human cell therapy.

Future Therapies

The current challenge lies in the formation of complex cartilaginous structures. Experimentally, there are groups that, using molds in bioreactors, have synthesized human ears, nasoseptal implants and temporomandibular discs

Within the field of knee femoral condyle repair, basic research is focusing its efforts on several avenues:

What is the Best Peptide for Healing?

To do this, they use polymers of lactic acid, hydroxy acids or copolymers of lactic and glycolic acids to support cell growth. The disadvantage of these polymers is that there is a loss of cell attachment over time. To solve this problem, there are already groups working on RGD16 peptides that, together with the polymers, would favor cell adhesion, improving the quality of the construct.

  • Use of growth factors (TGF-ß) to improve both the quality and the time of the repair.
  • Synthesis of neocartilage on cultured bone as support and, once grown, implant it in the injured area.

The indicated therapeutic alternatives, also called “bio-prostheses”, could regenerate the worn or missing cartilage coverage only if collateral damage, such as meniscal tears, joint instability or erroneous axial positions, are simultaneously eliminated. We see then that therapeutic variability is considerable and is not always the most appropriate. In the future, other treatments based fundamentally on undifferentiated cells, such as adult stem cells, will have an important field of application for these processes, as will some gene therapies.

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Is It Safe To Use Self-Tanners?

Is It Safe To Use Self-Tanners?Is It Safe To Use Self-Tanners? Summer is here, and we all want to get the perfect tan! Many of us like having a tan and leaving behind those pale faces. But beware, tanning is overrated since a tan (in our terms, “sunburn”). It indicates skin damage and is not good with the current increase in skin cancer in the general population, either from burns in childhood or due to the accumulation of radiation from lifelong sun exposure (Yes, the skin has a memory!).

Now we are addressed by different terms about protecting the skin and getting the perfect tan. Words like sunscreen (block, sunscreen), suntan lotions, and self-tanners frequently appear.

But do you know what they mean?

First, the most important, sunscreen or sunscreen, are substances that protect us from harmful UV rays, whether physical or chemical. There is always a number on their label after the acronym SPF, which stands for Sun Protection Factor, and this number indicates the time we can be exposed to the sun without burning. The correct and daily use of sunscreen is always being advised. Its re-application every 4 hours when there is intense sun exposure. In addition to protecting us from the sun, Sunscreens help us prevent or delay the effects of aging.

Are Self-Tanners Harmful to Skin?

Its counterpart would be the bronzers. Sunscreens are substances that naturally accelerate the skin’s pigment gain, accelerating the reaction to ultraviolet ray exposure. But these substances that come in creams or oils also accelerate burns production. Although an SPF appears in some bottles, it is usually deficient and has no protective effect against UV radiation.

So now we only have self-tanners, substances approved by the FDA, the food and drug administration agency in the US, to apply to the skin stimulating a “tan” of the skin chemically without exposing ourselves to harmful rays. GRAPE.

What are Self-Tanners?

The active ingredient in self-tanners is the substance dihydroxyacetone (DHA), which interacts with dead cells found in the most superficial layers of the skin and slowly produces color reactions. They roughly imitate natural pigmentation without the need to expose themselves to dangerous solar radiation.

What is the Duration of Self-Tanners?

After applying the self-tanner and obtaining the color, it gradually disappears, and after 5 to 6 days, there are no traces of it. It should reapply every 3 or 4 days to maintain the effect.

Does it have any harmful effects on the skin?

Not by itself, but if its use is not accompanied by sunscreens that protect us from the sun.

What is the Correct way of Application?

-Exfoliate the skin; either with a mitten or with body scrubs
-Thoroughly dry skin before applying self-tanner
-Apply the self-tanner in sections, starting on the arms, legs, and trunk. Give massages in a circular way for a correct distribution of it. Please wash your hands once finishing with each area so that they are not pigmented orange.
-Distribute well over the wrist and ankle joints to finish on the back of the hands and feet.
-In places such as knees, ankles, and elbows, where the skin is thicker and more pigmented, apply a small amount and distribute it evenly or diluted.
-To dilute the self-tanner or control the action, you can use a towel dry once applied or apply moisturizer to prevent complete penetration.
-Give the skin time to dry completely, a minimum of 10 minutes, and avoid sweating.
-Apply sunscreen every day, at least with an FSP 30, but if it is 50, much better, that is waterproof and broad-spectrum.

Is it Healthy to use Self-Tanner?

Now to answer the question, are self-tanners safe to use? Yes, it is, but emphasize that these do not protect against UVA and UVB solar radiation. To achieve such protection, you have to resort to regular cream applications with high sun protection factors (30 or 50).

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Cabergoline For Sale Online

cabergoline for sale onlineCabergoline For Sale Online here today for the competitive price of $62.33. We supply Peptides Warehouse Cabergoline for study use only. The research chemical Cabergoline can treat problems that arise when too much prolactin hormone is made. Studies show it to be effective in treating menstrual problems, fertility problems and pituitary gland tumors. Of course, more testing is necessary, so that is where we come in. We supply the best quality Cabergoline online for further study.

<<Buy Cabergoline now at the best prices online!>>

In this post we as the following questions and more!

Can I buy cabergoline over the counter?
How much does cabergoline cost?
Is cabergoline available in the US?
Is there an alternative to cabergoline?

Can I Buy Cabergoline Over The Counter?

We supply the raw chemical Cabergoline for research online for education and laboratory use. Cabergoline is available under the brand name Dostinex. Cabergoline oral tablet is available over the counter but only with a prescription. Ultimately, laws are different depending on where you live in the world. So, it is important to discuss any medical issue with a doctor.

How Much does Cabergoline Cost?

If you are in the research industry and want the best quality Cabergoline you have found the right place. We supply the raw ingredient Cabergoline for the affordable cost of $62.33.

Is there an alternative to Cabergoline?

Cabergoline is also Dostinex. It is a dopamine receptor antagonist used to treat a hormone imbalance in which there is too much prolactin in the blood.

The ingredient is used in medication to treat a variety of problems when too much of the hormone prolactin is made in the body.

Cabergoline works by stopping the brain from making too much prolactin in the pituitary gland. It can work for about 6 months and then when symptoms arise it may be given again. Cabergoline is available under the name Dostinex over the counter by prescription only!

Is Cabergoline Available in the US?

Cabergoline 0.5mg per ml x 30ml is widely available in the USA online for research only. One of the leading research companies we recommend is Peptides Warehouse. A long established company supplying a selection of SARMs and Peptides for research only.

What is Cabergoline?

Cabergoline is a long-acting synthetic alkaloid derived from ergotamine. It acts at the central level causing a dose-dependent suppression of prolactin levels, thanks to its agonist activity on dopamine (D2) receptors of the anterior pituitary gland. Cabergoline is seven times more selective towards D2 receptors than bromocriptine. So this greater selectivity could be responsible for its better tolerance compared to other dopaminergic agonists. Cabergoline has minimal affinity for adrenergic (α1 and α2), serotonergic, or histaminergic receptors. It is a potent 5-HT2B serotonin receptor agonist, contributing to fibrotic and Valvulopathy events.

What is it Cabergoline For?

Cabergoline reduces high levels of the hormone prolactin. Prolactin is a natural substance in the body that helps women produce milk for breast feeding. But, it can also cause other problems such as bone loss in breast-feeding women, infertility, and sexual problems.

Cabergoline Dosage in Clinical Uses

Treatment of hyperprolactinemic disorders: amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, anovulation and galactorrhea.

Prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas (micro- and macroprolactinomas), idiopathic hyperprolactinemia, or empty sella syndrome associated with hyperprolactinemia.

It represent the basic underlying pathologies that contribute to the clinical manifestations mentioned above.

Children with growth hormone (GH)-secreting lesions that do not respond to transsphenoidal surgery and radiation) thus it can be managed with dopamine agonists, such as cabergoline.

The duration of treatment is controversial. Its suppression can lead to tumor re-expansion and the reappearance of the clinical picture. Some authors propose a 5-year treatment, and suspension in those patients in whom prolactin levels have normalized and the pituitary image has disappeared. Rigorous control is necessary to resume treatment if necessary.

Cabergoline For Sale Online

For further studies with Cabergoline buy here today. We provide a first-class service from easy online ordering to fast shipping. Our research products are clinically tested and safe. Our products are made in the USA and have a certificate of analysis. We guarantee 100% satisfaction.


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Testagen Peptide For Sale

testagen peptideThe Testagen peptide for sale here is a dietary supplement with а synthesized testicular peptide. It normalizes the function of the testicles by reducing their peptide deficiency and restoring protein synthesis inside their cells.Testagen is a dietary supplement with а synthesized testicular peptide. It normalizes the function of the testicles by reducing their peptide deficiency and restoring protein synthesis inside their cells.

Where Can I buy Testagen?

For the highest quality Testagen you will find that Peptide Sciences have the best quality for the price.

The results of clinical studies have shown that the peptides that make up Testagen have a positive effect on metabolic processes in the cells of the testicles and improve the functions of the male reproductive system.

It is advisable to use Testagen to restore sexual function in men after infectious and inflammatory diseases, to prevent the negative effects on reproductive function of harmful environmental factors, including vibration, ionizing radiation, the toxic effects of alcohol and certain drugs.

What Makes Testagen Peptide So Good?

Testagen peptide is one of the best new peptides that have recently emerged over the past 5 years. Scientists now know the benefits to this drug and how it could completely eradicate male infertility forever!


The use of Testagen increases the effectiveness of complex treatment of male infertility and menopausal symptoms in men; contributes to the preservation and maintenance of the functional activity of the male reproductive system at an optimal level in adulthood and old age.

Testagen is a source of peptides that improve sexual function in men.

The results of clinical studies have shown that the peptides that make up Testagen have a positive effect on metabolic processes in the cells of the testicles and improve the functions of the male reproductive system.

It is advisable to use Testagen to restore sexual function in men after infectious and inflammatory diseases, to prevent the negative effects on reproductive function of harmful environmental factors, including vibration, ionizing radiation, the toxic effects of alcohol and certain drugs.


short peptides to restore the function of the male reproductive system

Restoration of men’s health? Confidently.

Men’s health problems are closely related to the state of reproductive function. Fatigue, reduced physical and mental performance, memory loss, sudden hot flashes, irritability, sexual weakness are some of the signs of hormonal changes. Testagen helps to get rid of disturbing symptoms.

Highly recommended:

• with a decrease in the function of the testes

• male infertility due to impaired spermatogenesis, after exposure to various toxic factors, including after exposure to ionizing radiation

• climacteric syndrome in men


• regulates metabolic processes in the testicles

• enhances the functional activity and motility of spermatozoa

• improves the trophism of the organs of the male reproductive system

• helps prevent morpho-functional changes in tissues

including at the first signs of hormonal changes in men


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Anti-Aging Peptides: Why are they so Effective on Skin?

Anti-Aging PeptidesAnti-Aging Peptides: Why are they so effective against wrinkles? Scientific studies have shown promising results in skincare using peptides, as they have excellent anti-aging properties, can strengthen the skin barrier, and contribute to a more youthful appearance.

Do Peptides Work for Wrinkles?

When amino acids join together, they create peptides, which, in turn, make proteins. Peptides are, therefore, the “building blocks” of proteins. These molecular connections occur in the human, plant, and animal cells and are part of connective tissue, hair, and nails.

In beauty, peptides are considered an excellent active against wrinkles and other signs of aging. Its effect encourages the body to stimulate and improve functions such as cell growth, while clinical studies have confirmed the impact on skin renewal. Cosmetic products containing peptides are perfect for caring for mature skin from 35. Regular anti-aging products make skin look younger and fresher with everyday use. Therefore, we recommend the continued use of peptide-containing products because they are well tolerated and suitable for all skin types.

Are Peptides Good for Anti-Aging?

Anti-Aging Peptide Benefits include:

-It stimulates collagen production
-improves skin elasticity
-strengthens the skin’s natural barrier
-reduces the depth and width of wrinkles
-ensures soft and smooth skin
-Reduce expression lines
-fights free radicals
-increases skin hydration

Best Peptides for Skin

1. Paula’s Choice Peptide Booster
It contains eight essential peptides to give your skin everything it needs for a radiant, plump and healthy appearance and stimulates skin peptides like keratin, collagen, and elastin. Thanks to the highly effective combination, moisture loss, wrinkles, and dark spots reduce.

2. True North De-Stressed Tonic 1.2
De-Stressed Tonic 1.2 This product cleanses, moisturizes, and softens the skin thanks to the patented aloe vera complex. Hyaluronic acid provides intense hydration and leaves the skin pleasantly smooth. The main ingredient is Syn-Tacks, a combination of peptides that stimulate cell proteins.

3. Collagen Management Contour Lift Ampoules by Dr. Temt
This highly concentrated serum inactive ingredients has a visible firming effect on the contour of the complexion and provides the skin with high hydration. The intensive formula contains peptides that form collagen and elastin, and hyaluronic acid, which are the essential components of skin collagen. Vitamin C helps double the effects of peptides that induce collagen and elastin production.

Do Peptides Make You Look Younger?

Peptides are a potent weapon for skincare. They have started strongly, and the results are such that those who try them recommend them to their acquaintances.

Sustained-release peptides, amino-acids combine with highly purified hyaluronic acid, and makes a mixture that repairs, regenerates, and densifies.  Depending on the peptide used, it eliminates double chin, eye bags and even whitens the skin, removing blemishes.

These new molecules, which are natural and healthy, are the latest in aesthetic medicine. They manage to solve several causes that motivate us to go to a clinic, making us look and feel better.

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The Hunt for SARS-CoV-2 Signature Peptides!

SARS-CoV-2 peptidesResearchers have identified SARS-CoV-2 signature peptides using proteomics. A “shortlist” of 14 peptides makes it possible to envisage developments in targeted mass spectrometry for a tool of choice in detecting the virus responsible for Covid-19.

SARS-CoV-2 Structure

Fighting an epidemic such as Covid-19 requires effective, rapid means of detecting the virus and available throughout the territory. Identifying the agent responsible for the pandemic, the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and the sequencing of its genome made it possible to develop a method based on the amplification of ultra-specific nucleic acid fragments (RT- PCR) currently the reference method. The diagnostic capacities of analysis laboratories were particularly strained worldwide due to the lack of reagents for these tests at the start of the epidemic, at the crucial moment when the very rapid acceleration of infections had a substantial impact on the final assessment.

SARS-CoV-2 Meaning

Other methodologies that do not require specific reagents concerning the desired target can mobilize but do not yet have sufficient maturity to be deployed on a large scale.

These are nucleic acid sequencing (virus genome) and viral protein sequencing (the genome is enclosed in a protein structure, the capsid itself covered by a protein envelope). Both solutions are for the future, with the second being the subject of this study.

At CEA-Joliot, in Marcoule, the teams mobilized to record precise tandem mass spectrometry data on the proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 virus expressed in cells in culture. Exploited data from the main proteins of the virus were obtained from some 101 peptides.

SARS-CoV-2 Positive Means

The peptides were conserved in all the variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus known to date. Those that gave the maximum signal in the mass spectrometry were considered exciting candidates. To make it reliable, the detection of the virus was the subject of a shortlist. The researchers have thus pinpointed a set of peptides that can be analyzed very quickly (shotgun proteomics).

These are encouraging results on a selection of “signature” peptides. Results obtained from the main viral proteins expressed in an in vitro system now lead the researchers to propose the validation of their methodology on hospital samples. Thus, they wish to show the usefulness of mass spectrometry as an ultra-rapid identification tool, requiring no specific reagent of the virus responsible for Covid-19 and adaptable to any pathogen.

The SARS-CoV-2 virus genome is safe inside a protein structure, the capsid itself covered with a viral envelope. These two structures make up several proteins. The peptides identify in this study come from the three main proteins of SARS-CoV-2 the Spike, S, a Membrane glycoprotein, M, and a Nucleoprotein.