Posted on Leave a comment

Peptides for Recovery

Peptides for RecoveryPeptides for recovery as active ingredients are less in the limelight than proteins. There was good reason for that. However, there are increasing signs that these ‘small proteins‘ are now increasingly pushing themselves into the spotlight of biologicals. In fact, their pharmacological rise has already begun.

>>BUY RECOVERY PEPTIDES HERE<<

The pool of therapeutic peptides could not be larger: They are obtained from unicellular, multicellular and multicellular organisms, or come from recombinant or chemical libraries. The number of these biomolecules is confusingly large, and the number of their derivatives is even greater.

What is Peptides for Recovery

“As a rule, peptide active ingredients have many weak points,” says Tanja Weil, a chemist with many years of pharmaceutical experience. The assessment of the Ulm researcher is shared by many. The list of disadvantages of peptide active ingredients is long.

Shortcoming number one: Peptides usually have to be injected because they are quickly broken down by proteolytic enzymes in the digestive tract. Shortcoming number two: peptides have a short half-life because they are also broken down quickly in the cells. Shortcoming number three: the liver and kidneys quickly remove peptides from the circulation. Shortcoming number four: Because of their hydrophilic properties, they hardly pass any physiological hurdles. Shortcoming number five: their pronounced conformational flexibility sometimes leads to a lack of selectivity, activates different target structures and leads to side effects.

Because of their shorter half-lives, few peptides accumulate in tissues, thereby reducing hazards arising from complications from their degradation products. Compared to the larger proteins and antibodies, peptides can penetrate deeper into the tissue. In addition, they are generally less immunogenic than recombinant proteins and antibodies. In addition, there are lower production costs, higher activity, greater stability (storage at room temperature). Many therapeutic peptides are derived from natural proteins or polypeptides and often interact with membrane proteins. Usually small amounts are sufficient to activate or deactivate the target receptors. Few peptide antagonists that inhibit the ligand-receptor interaction have hit the market so far.

Does Peptides for Recovery Work?

Around a dozen peptide molecules are in late clinical stages. The approved peptide active ingredients cover a wide range of indications and are administered intravenously, subcutaneously, inhalatively and even orally (linaclotid). The majority of the approximately 120 test substances are aimed at the indications of oncology and infection. More than half of the pipeline peptides have a single target, with a tenth targeting microbes. The most frequently activated target structures are the membrane proteins, which are located in the outer cell membrane and conduct stimuli from the outside into the cell’s interior, especially G-protein-coupled receptors (almost 40 percent, according to Kaspar/Reichert). Many of the peptides currently in phase II have been linked to other molecules, such as PEG or lipids.

Stabilize and functionalize Peptides for Recovery

We can use it to synthesize peptides that nature cannot produce in this way and that have improved properties,” summarizes the Ulm chemist. One inevitably thinks of Lego building blocks when Tanja Weil begins to explain why peptides are now so well suited for ‘pharmaceutical development’ Example Cysteine ​​This sulfur-containing, naturally occurring amino acid can form disulfide bridges that stabilize the molecule. Cysteine, if incorporated at a specific site, could also link peptides together. With this, according to Weil, coupling reactions could be optimized in such a way that, in the end, a functional protein could even be produced in the test tube. Complete production of an enzyme in a test tube is still a dream. But the way there seems to be mapped out.

Optimization is progressing

According to Weil, some optimization strategies have now reached a certain level of maturity. Animal experiments are now being carried out with encapsulated peptide active ingredients that are intended to pass through the gastrointestinal tract. The bioavailability of peptides can be extended by transporting them using nanovehicles such as mesoporous silica particles, or by attaching polymers such as polyethylene glycol groups to the peptide drug (PEGylation). These polymers are known for their low adsorption to plasma proteins, which keeps the drugs stable in the bloodstream for longer and allows them to target cellular surface receptors.

Research also promises a stabilizing effect by adding groups to the biomolecules that are not quickly recognized by enzymes. The breakdown of peptide active ingredients by digestive enzymes can be slowed down, for example, by incorporating D-amino acids instead of L-amino acids. Recently, the Münch, Kirchhoff and Weil working groups identified and characterized a peptide that forms visible aggregates that significantly improve the transport of viruses into cells and could be of interest for gene therapy, for example. “There are some promising approaches here,” not least in Ulm, where research is more advanced than with oral availability, says Tanja Weil.

New stars among the biologicals?

Biologicals such as peptides are gaining importance because of their high specificity and biological activity, since many small molecules fail because of toxic metabolites and unintended interactions. In view of advanced optimization strategies, peptide active ingredients are now considered an attractive class of substances that can open up new indications in the semisynthetic area, including in the area of ​​the CNS (Vlieghe, 54). Peptides are already being tested as anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory agents, as antibiotics and enzyme inhibitors in a variety of indications. Antimicrobial peptides are predicted to have a great future.

The search for active ingredients in nature is not a new idea; the search in human body fluids is new. That could be an advantage because “the problem is always the separation, even with small molecules, their isolation and purification,” says Weil. Logically, endogenous peptides have a different toxicological profile than exogenous substances extracted from sponges or cytotoxic substances from tree bark.

And it’s not just researchers in Ulm who believe that the degradome, the sum of proteins broken down by proteolytic enzymes, is neither biological waste nor a coincidence. The importance of this degradome is supported by the observation that the more than 500 proteases that cut these peptides from proteins can be altered under pathological conditions. In addition, there is growing evidence that some of these larger protein cleavage products show specific and sometimes highly unexpected activity against human pathogens.

It is highly probable that many important peptidic immune modulators and effectors are hidden in the human organism. A dozen therapeutically interesting peptides with antimicrobial and anti- or proviral activity fished from human peptide libraries are already known (Münch, Ständker, 15). By no means every peptide obtained from body fluids is suitable for development as a therapeutic agent. The people of Ulm also value the knowledge gained as a benefit. Her hope is to increase our understanding of how cells are controlled and how they enter cells, and in the process possibly discover completely new mechanisms of action or defense in the body.

Posted on

Niod Copper Peptide

Niod Copper Peptide
8

3Do you know about Niod Copper Peptide and what they can do? These claims range from the ability to plump lips and firm skin, to getting rid of dark circles and puffiness. Sounds pretty incredible, but are peptides really heroes in anti-aging skin care, or just over-hyped ingredients?

The Paula Choice Research Team breaks it down!

Peptides are proteins composed of long or short chains of amino acids, building blocks of protein. Peptides can be natural or synthetic. Most peptides used in cosmetics are synthetic, because the laboratory engineering of these ingredients gives chemists greater control over the stability and efficacy of skin care products.

What is Niod Copper Peptide?

>>>Buy Copper Peptides Here

One more example that the natural route is not always the best for the skin! The importance of peptides in skin care is largely based on the perpetuation of the cosmetics industry in the sense that there is a magic ingredient or group of ingredients, which are the anti-aging answer. It just isn’t true. There’s no one-size-fits-all solution to all signs of aging, although we admit it would be great if it really was that simple.

This is what you should memorize about niod copper peptide

Just as there is no single healthy food to eat or one supplement to take, there is no single ingredient that is better than the others. The skin is the most complex organ of the human body, as you can imagine, its needs cannot be reduced to what a single peptide or mixture of peptides can do. Although peptides are not miracle workers, they are good ingredients to use in skin care products, but we still have a lot to learn about how to best use peptides for maximum skin benefits.

Are Peptides Simply scavengers?

Most peptides function as water scavengers, moisture-binding agents, and almost all of them theoretically have the ability to activate cellular self-regeneration in the skin. Those are interesting advantages, as long as they are not based solely on peptides. It takes a great blend of anti-aging ingredients to make skin look smoother, firmer, and of course, younger.

Peptides do not work like Botox or dermal fillers, used to reduce wrinkles . Peptides are definitely not the topical answer for those afraid of the needle! Research, aiming to prove otherwise, usually comes from the company that sells the peptide or blends the peptides for cosmetic companies.

Very often, the amount used in the company or laboratory funded study is much higher than what is used in skin care products, so the benefit simply does not exist.

Copper Peptides; reality or fiction

Some wonder if a specific group of peptides – copper peptides (also known as copper gluconate) – are finally the anti-aging answer everyone has been searching for. The synthesis of fundamental substances such as collagen and elastin, is partly related to the presence of copper in the body. There is also research showing that copper can be effective in healing skin damage.

But so far, there isn’t much research showing that copper-linked peptides can smooth wrinkles and smooth skin. What’s more, these studies rarely, if ever, compare the supposedly wonderful results of copper peptides to other, more proven ingredients.

Wouldn’t you like to know if another ingredient (like vitamin C or retinol) works even better than copper peptides? We are sure that it is!

We have also received many questions about whether copper peptides should not be used with vitamin C, AHA, BHA, due to the interaction between copper (a metal) and ascorbic acid, but Superoxide Dismutase and Zinc work. exceptionally well with vitamin C and have metal chemical properties, too. Specifically for copper, there is no research to show this to be true, just as there is little research to show that copper peptides independently have anti-aging benefits.

Lastly, when it comes to copper itself, there is something called the Fenton reaction, a process where copper generates free radicals that cause inflammation, and we know that inflammation is pro-aging. We are not claiming that skin care products that include copper peptides would have this effect or to what extent this effect would be on the skin, but depending on how the peptides react with each other, it is a possibility. There are other alternatives, whose ingredients provide benefits without such concern. Why take the risk with copper peptides.

What are Protein Peptides Exactly?

Protein peptides can be great anti-aging ingredients in skin care products. But as with the rest of the ingredients, they are not the only ones you need to make your skin look as young and healthy as you want. Take these seemingly fantastic claims about peptide products with a grain of salt, and remember that using products with a cocktail of ingredients (plus daily sun protection) is the best choice you can make for your skin’s health and appearance!

 

Sources: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, April 2013, pages 1-8; and Journal of Investigative Dermatology, August 2003, pp. 177-183.

Posted on

A Guide to the Prostate 

ProstateProstate (or prostatic) cancer starts in the prostate gland. The prostate gland is one of two male sex glands that produce fluids (prostate-specific antigen (PSA), seminal fluid) and semen (the second is the seminal vesicles). The prostate is about the size and weight of a walnut and weighs about 1 kg. It is at the base of the penis and about 2.5 cm (1 in) from the penis’ opening. 

Prostate Cancer

Cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in men, and the American Cancer Society has estimated that there were about 268,new cases of prostate cancer in 2021. Some studies indicate that the incidence of the disease may be declining. Other studies have found that it is increasing. 

The most common form of prostate cancer is the slow-growing hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. The most common signs and symptoms of prostate cancer are difficulties urinating, blood in the urine, back and leg pain, and fever. Diagnosis is with a digital rectal examination or blood tests. PSA testing monitors if the disease has progressed to the more advanced forms. 

There are many treatments for prostate cancer are available. These include drugs, radiation, prostatectomy, and watchful waiting. Several preventive measures are also available. Many men choose to lower their risk of getting prostate cancer, such as stopping smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, eating a diet rich in fibre and vitamin D, and not drinking alcohol. 

For people with cancer, symptoms can usually be detected early. However, it cannot be cured once prostate cancer progresses, and it often kills its victims. Many prostate cancer patients live a few years, while others may live just a few weeks. Half of those who survive longer than ten years die from prostate cancer. 

Signs and symptoms 

Cancer of the prostate, called prostate cancer, is the most common non-skin cancer in men and second most common in women.

Symptoms can include: 

  • Difficulty with urination (obstruction, frequent urination, hesitancy, weak stream, and dribbling), frequent urge to urinate, painful urination, urinary infection
  • Pain and swelling in the prostate area Back or groin pain
  • Difficulty passing urine
  • An enlarged prostate (usually measured using digital rectal exam)

An enlarged prostate may cause blood in the urine, semen abnormalities, and may cause painful urination and discomfort, or urinary tract infections.

What are the Warning Signs of Prostate Problems?

The vast majority of cases of prostate cancer are an overgrowth of cells in the lining of the prostate gland. Some cases of prostate cancer appear to be triggered by inherited genetic mutations. However, in most cases, it is unclear how the mutated genes cause the overgrowth of cells in the prostate. Some inherited gene mutations are associated with increased risks of prostate cancer, while other gene mutations are associated with increased risk of different cancer types. 

Environmental factors cause most prostate cancer. These factors include dietary changes, which may result from lifestyle, diet and nutritional supplements; infections, which may be associated with specific strains of sexually transmitted infections; and certain medications. Some studies have found that obesity, frequent drinking of alcoholic beverages, and a high intake of processed meat may increase the risk of prostate cancer. 

prostateHow Do You Fix Prostate Problems?

Diagnosis Cancer of the prostate is diagnosed by digital rectal exam and the results of a blood test called the prostate-specific antigen (PSA). In most cases, the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in the blood are normal until a man is in the mid-50s, but the PSA levels begin to increase gradually with age. For this reason, PSA levels in men older than 50 are not helpful in determining whether cancer has developed. The normal level of PSA in young men is usually higher.

Cystoscopy and Sigmoidoscopy

A digital rectal examination is done to examine the prostate gland, check for nodules or tumors, feel the edges of the prostate gland, and measure its size. A cystoscopy (a procedure in which a physician looks inside the urinary tract using a scope) and a sigmoidoscopy (which is done in the lower end of the colon) are sometimes done to see whether there are tumors or enlarged lymph nodes in other parts of the body. A bone scan may also be done to look for bone metastases. 

PSA Blood Test

A blood test called the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is used to screen for prostate cancer. The PSA level is a screening tool that measures the amount of a substance, called prostate-specific antigen (PSA), in a man’s blood. PSA levels in men older than 50 are not helpful in determining whether cancer has developed. The normal level of PSA in young men is usually higher. 

Treatment

Once prostate cancer is detected, it can be examined through various imaging tests, including MRI and CT scans, to assess its size and spread. In addition, biopsies can be performed through a local anesthetic injection to diagnose cancer. Biopsies are to obtain a sample of the tumor cells and ensure that cancer has not spread to other parts of the body. 

Other tests may be done in order to determine the stage of cancer or its specific characteristics, or whether the cancer has been treated successfully. For example, to see if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body, a bone scan may be done. For women, the ovarian Papanicolaou (Pap) smear is often done to check for signs of ovarian cancer. 

Screening

Although the exact role of PSA testing in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer is unclear, and there is general agreement that it can increase early detection of cancer. PSA screening, which involves checking for abnormal levels of PSA, is now widely used in the United States and most other countries to screen for prostate cancer. 

Screening for prostate cancer is controversial, and many experts have criticized PSA screening. Many men choose to have their PSA tested regularly, and many PSA levels will not show signs of prostate cancer. The National Cancer Institute has estimated that screening effectively decreases mortality by 20% to 30%. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends that men aged 55–69 should be screened, as long as they discuss the benefits and potential harms of screening with their physicians. However, they note that there is little evidence that screening is cost-effective in the range of ages they recommend. The USPSTF also notes that men who are at low risk for prostate cancer should not be screened for it. 

Prevention – Early detection and treatment 

Early detection is associated with a better prognosis for prostate cancer, but early detection also has been associated with high levels of over diagnosis. Because early detection makes treatment more likely, many groups recommend against the use of PSA-based screening in asymptomatic men. 

Several organizations recommend that men over 50 avoid PSA testing because the positive predictive value is lower for this age group. Men who have a first-degree relative with prostate cancer or a history of prostate cancer are encouraged to have regular screening, but many experts also suggest that the benefit of early detection is unclear. 

High levels of over diagnosis also limit early detection for other cancers, so there is also little evidence that men at low risk for other cancer types should be screened routinely. 

Possible Preventive Measures Include: 

Lowering one’s risk of getting prostate cancer by quitting smoking, keeping a healthy weight, eating a healthy diet, and limiting the amount of alcohol one consumes; A prostate examination every 1 to 2 years starting at age 40. 

The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends that men over age 40 check their PSA levels every 2 years. They recommend that men with a PSA level of 3 ng/ml or lower be followed closely without screening for prostate cancer. PSA testing cannot detect all prostate cancers and it may lead to excessive screening and overtreatment. If a man has an elevated PSA level for more than 3 years, it should be checked to determine whether or not there are any possible causes for it (e.g. enlarged prostate, infection). The American Cancer Society’s (ACS) 2019 recommendations on screening for prostate cancer include the option of delaying the first prostate examination until age 50. 

Genetic Testing

There is some evidence that specific inherited gene mutations have caused some prostate cancers. Genetic screening can identify these hereditary mutations and allow men at high risk to undergo surveillance or early treatment. The American Cancer Society recommends that men at high risk (e.g. those who have a first-degree relative with prostate cancer, a positive family history, or a history of fast-growing cancer in the prostate) discuss genetic testing with their physician. 

Men between 40 and 60 years are currently recruiting for a prostate cancer prevention study. Men who have a first-degree relative with prostate cancer, a positive family history, or in the highest prostate cancer risk category (based on a clinical risk calculator) are eligible for the study. The study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in which half the men assign to receive a genetic test and the rest to receive an information pamphlet. Participants in the study are not aware of their assigned group. Genetic testing and information from the pamphlets are used to decide the optimal screening frequency for participants in each group. 

Hormonal Therapy 

Various forms of androgen deprivation therapy are used to lower the levels of hormones (prostate-specific antigen, PSA) produced by prostate cancer. Common hormonal therapies include luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs, anti-androgens, and chirogenic medications. Hormonal therapies are used to shrink prostate tumors and to decrease the amount of PSA in the blood before surgery is done. 

The most common types of hormonal therapy for prostate cancer are: 

The LHRH analogs (leuprolide acetate, goserelin) block the pituitary gland from producing LHRH. As a result, the testicles stop producing testosterone and cause the prostate to shrink. The anti-androgens (flutamide, bicalutamide) block the action of testosterone in the prostate. 

The chirogenic medications (methyltrienolone enanthate (Dbol), dihydrotestosterone (DHT)) reduce the amount of testosterone in the prostate. It reduces the amount of testosterone in the blood, which causes the prostate to shrink. While hormone therapy can effectively treat advanced prostate cancer, there are some side effects. It may also delay the spread of prostate cancer to other parts of the body and it can sometimes cause sexual dysfunction. In addition, some men who undergo hormone therapy stop responding to the treatment after a while and need other treatments. 

Prostate Surgery 

If cancer is detected in the early stages of prostate cancer, surgery is used to remove the prostate gland. Early diagnosis and treatment can lead to a more favorable prognosis. Many men who undergo surgery, radiation therapy, or high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) will no longer require hormone treatment after the surgery or other treatments are complete. In some cases, a surgical procedure called cryosurgery can be used to remove prostate cancer. A cryoprobe is inserted into the prostate, and liquid nitrogen is used to freeze the cancer. This causes the prostate tissue to become dead. 

Prostatectomy 

Prostatectomy is surgical removal of the prostate. For most men with early-stage prostate cancer, a prostatectomy is a preferred treatment. Because it is major surgery, people with high blood pressure or some other health problems should not undergo a prostatectomy. Men who undergo surgery for prostate cancer usually have their PSA levels checked at least 3 months after surgery. Prostatectomy will remove cancerous prostates in men who have urine flow or bladder control problems. If the cancer is very advanced, surgeons will use other treatments.

Radiation 

Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to destroy cancer cells. Treatment is given by a linear accelerator machine and can be performed at a hospital or a clinic. Radiation is used to treat prostate cancer that has spread to the lymph nodes, bones, or brain. It may be used in combination with other treatments, such as surgery, hormonal therapy, or chemotherapy. 

Radiation therapy is often recommended after surgery to treat the cancer that may have spread to the lymph nodes. It is usually used in combination with hormone therapy and may be used to shrink tumors before surgery. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) HIFU is used to focus a beam of sound waves on the spot on the prostate. It causes the prostate to heat up and can destroy cancer cells. HIFU is less invasive than other prostate cancer treatments. 

For this reason, it is a treatment for early-stage prostate cancer. HIFU is performed in the hospital and is covered by some insurance policies. However, some companies may not pay for HIFU.

Prostate Cancer Hormone Therapy

Many men who undergo radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer will have hormone therapy after surgery. This therapy helps keep the hormone levels down, making prostate cancer less likely to come back. Most men who undergo a radical prostatectomy will not be given hormone therapy. 

Hormone therapy will treat a recurrence of prostate cancer. It can be used in combination with radiation therapy or in combination with androgen deprivation therapy. Some men may experience erectile dysfunction after surgery for prostate cancer. It is due to damage to the nerve cells in the penis. This condition is usually permanent. The risk of erectile dysfunction increases as a man ages. 

Other Prostate Cancer Treatments  

Therapy is a type of treatment with a low chance of curing prostate cancer. There are three types of therapy: surgery, radiation therapy, and hormonal therapy.

Posted on

Alzheimer’s ICD 10 Research

alzheimers icd 10 information research

Alzheimer’s ICD 10 research has been increased recently in an attempt to understand the nature of this disease.

Despite the great increase in knowledge, a causal therapy for the disease remains wishful thinking.

Dementias are not only increasing in industrialized nations, but also in China, Africa and India. An estimated 25 million people worldwide suffer from Alzheimer’s dementia – and the growth rates are faster than for breast cancer. The causes of the disease are unclear, although knowledge of molecular processes has increased massively. It is unclear whether and when there will be “the” Alzheimer’s drug at all. Nevertheless, Prof. Dr. medical Harald Hampel (Dublin and Munich) is cautiously optimistic about secondary preventive therapy.

What is Alzheimer’s ICD 10?

Severe setbacks for Alzheimer’s therapy mean three large clinical studies which, despite different “strategies” – according to the different hypotheses on pathophysiology – did not show the hoped-for success, but in some cases serious side effects. 123 clinical studies are currently underway worldwide, the first preventive medical studies are in phases II and III. In July 2008, the pipeline status still included
– 27 substances in phase I
– 25 in phase II and
– 10 in phase III
In the meantime, the number has roughly doubled, according to Prof. Dr. medical Peter Riederer (Würzburg). The strategies remain different, and the substances target a wide variety of systems (glutamatergic, cholinergic, histaminergic, serotonergic, cannabis and inflammatory systems) in addition to the amyloid cascade.alzheimers icd 10

How Does it Work?

The pharmaceutical industry uses different strategies in parallel:
nicotine acetylcholine receptor agonists, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, gamma and b-secretase, b-amyloid vaccination and protein deposition inhibitors.

The early disruption of glucose metabolism that Prof. Dr. Siegfried Hoyer (Heidelberg) as the long-time chairman of the board of directors of the Brain League is back in focus. Glycogen synthetase kinase 3 inhibitors compete against the changed central glucose utilization with downstream disrupted neuronal insulin transduction; with PPAR* gamma agonists, an approach directly at the insulin receptor is recommended.

On the other hand, the mitochondria could be a central early end of various processes that interact to disrupt the function of these energy powerhouses – ATP delivery and apoptosis, said Prof. Dr. medical Walter Müller (Frankfurt/Main). According to a publication in “The Lancet”, an “ancient” antihistamine from Russia is said to have a mitochondrial target and, according to the published data, spectacular success – contrary to all current hypotheses. According to Müller, however, the substance is currently not available.

Does Surgery Work?

Surgery at a relatively late stage of the disease with advanced neurodegeneration is probably not the ideal starting point for therapy. However, for a study to start in the preclinical phase, instead of the clinical diagnosis,ICD -10 specific and valid biomarkers are developed as parameters. According to Hampel, they seem to have already been found for the amyloid cascade. In neuroimaging, PET is developing in a high-field direction, making even small lesions visible. General practitioner sets the course The prevalence

Alzheimer’s ICD 10 Research is Working

The number of Alzheimer’s patients in old people’s homes is increasing steadily: in 13 Mannheim homes from 55 percent in 1995 to 65 percent in 2003. Of the approximately two million Alzheimer’s patients in need of care, however, only one third is cared for in the home, two thirds are at home provided. According to Dr. Martin Haupt (Düsseldorf) only rarely in the home – and if so, then with tricyclics and conventional neuroleptics. The family doctor is responsible for the diagnosis the most important switchman, and he remains the “hub” in the coordination of the service providers. “But he is not the one who is responsible for everything and not the permanent contact person,” He was committed to communicating the diagnosis to the patient and not trivializing it. The stable phase can be extended through therapy – which gives patients and their relatives the chance to prepare for the difficult times and to discuss further options together.

*PPAR = Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor

Symposium of the Brain League eV “Alzheimer’s Research and Treatment – Outlook and Reality” in Frankfurt am Main

Vision of the Future

With early and comprehensive treatment with drugs and non-drug procedures, the development of Alzheimer’s disease can be slowed down by one to two years. A delay of just five years would reduce the number of Alzheimer’s patients by 50 percent. If it were postponed by ten years, the disease would have all but disappeared.

Posted on

Are There Drugs for Obesity?

Are There Drugs for Obesity?Are there drugs for obesity? What you need to know about medications approved to treat obesity
Do medications that help with weight loss work? Why are the drugs indicated for weight loss not used? Although there is a belief that obesity has no pharmaceutical treatment, it is also true that professionals have an increasing number of obese patients. These patients cannot maintain a healthy weight loss with changes in their eating habits. So patients’ frustration often makes them willing to pay exorbitant amounts to find a solution.

Are There Drugs for Obesity?

Thus, it is worth learning about and analyzing the types of medications that we currently have to solve obesity. It is necessary to assess whether pharmaceutical treatment for obesity can be a good strategy to combat it.

Today some drugs contribute between 5-15% in weight loss and improve all associated comorbidities (diseases or complications).

The Spanish Agency for Medicines and Health Products (AEMPS) currently authorizes three drugs for long-term treatment. However, bear in mind that in the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) already has five authorized. All are indicated for a body mass index (BMI) > 30 or a (BMI) > 27 with comorbidities.

The active principles responsible for these treatments authorized in Spain are Orlistat, liraglutide, and Bupropion + Naltrexone.

What is the Best Treatment for Obesity?

Orlistat inhibits pancreatic lipase, which is the enzyme responsible for breaking down fats so that they can be absorbed. Consequently, there is a decrease in the absorption of fats from the diet. It is associated with weight loss:
-lowering of blood pressure
-prevention of type 2 diabetes

The possible associated adverse effects are gastrointestinal such as diarrhea or flatulence.
The drug is not for use during pregnancy, in cholestasis, malabsorption syndrome, or cyclosporine administration. It may increase oxalate in urine and may predispose to kidney stones.

Weight Loss Medication Prescription

The main medications currently approved and marketed are Ali, Beacita, Lestat and Orliloss These can be purchased without a prescription and given three 60 mg capsules per day with meals. As for those under medical prescription, they differ from the previous ones by doubling the dose to 120mg. These are known by the names of Orlistat, Orliloss and Xenical.

Semaglutide Liraglutide Weight Loss

Liraglutide is an incretin analog, specifically glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). It is released in response to food intake and has receptors in the hypothalamus and in the intestine, where it increases the feeling of satiety. GLP-1 is a hormone that regulates glucose homeostasis by stimulating insulin secretion. It is also used in type 2 diabetes patients and in obese patients for its satiating effect. The possible associated adverse effects are of a gastrointestinal type: nausea, and abdominal pain; by itself, there is no risk of hypoglycemia.

  • It is contraindicated in thyroid cancer, type 2 multiple endocrine neoplasia, pancreatitis, and during pregnancy and lactation.
  • The administration is through a daily subcutaneous injection. It begins with a dose of 0.6 MB the first week and will gradually increase up to a quantity of 3mg daily. The drug currently marketed is Saxenda and is under medical prescription.

Weight Loss Medication Prescription

The third and last drug approved is the combination of Naltrexone and Bupropion. It is a drug with significant effects. At the level of the hypothalamus, it stimulates satiety through a dual mechanism and stimulates the production of POMC and melanocortin. It blocks endorphin receptors and the pleasure associated with eating. It can cause gastrointestinal side effects and sometimes changes in mood.

These drugs pose an exciting line of intervention for patients with obesity. More new studies need to be done, and further efforts to prevent and treat obesity. In addition, more knowledge of the pathways that lead to excess adiposity is necessary. Investigation and intervention with the management of the treatments  above may put an end this problem.

Posted on Leave a comment

Recovery Peptides Beginners Guide

recovery peptides explained in detail  Recovery Peptides are omnipresent in nature and in our everyday life. They occur, for example, as hormones, neurotransmitters, sweeteners and anti-wrinkle substances and can serve as catalysts as well as for the production of nanoparticles.

BUY RECOVERY PEPTIDES HERE<<

Recovery Peptides are small proteins and, like these, are made up of amino acids, i.e. compounds with at least one amino and one carboxylic acid group. By coupling these two functional groups, amino acids can be linked to form recovery peptides and proteins. The term peptide is used when fewer than 50 amino acids are lined up; if there are more, one speaks of protein. The bonds between the amino acids are extremely stable and have a half-life of several million years under physiological conditions. Proteins and peptides are like dinosaurs among the naturally occurring compounds. For example, the protein collagen can still be found in dinosaur bones today, and what’s more: His analysis shows that it is almost identical to those collagens

Incredibly Numerous Recovery Peptides

Why can peptides take on so many different tasks? The reason lies in the enormous structural and functional diversity that can be achieved by linking different amino acids to form a peptide. A simple numerical example makes this clear: If you combine only the 20 most frequently occurring amino acids in proteins to form all possible variants of pentapeptides (peptides made up of five amino acids), you get 205 = 3.2 million different peptides. If these 20 amino acids are varied randomly in a peptide made up of 50 amino acids, then 2050 = 1.1 x 1065 combinations are possible – an unimaginably large number. Since the structure and therefore the properties of the different amino acids differ significantly, these differences are magnified in different peptides. It then applies to find the peptide best suited for the desired property from the many variants. Nature has achieved this through evolution, and as explained below, scientists also like to use so-called combinatorial compound libraries to run evolution in time lapse and to identify the most suitable compound from a large number.

Sweetener and Toxins Peptides

A simple dipeptide, for example, is the sweetener aspartame, composed of the two amino acids aspartate and phenylalanine: it has the same energy content as normal sugar, but is 180 times sweeter. The discovery of this sweetener is by chance. The starting point was the peptide hormone gastrin, which is released in the stomach after eating and regulates the formation of gastric acid. Since only a small part of the total peptide (a mere four amino acid sequence) is primarily responsible for the physiological activity of gastrin and since it was suspected that it might also have an anti-ulcer effect, scientists attempted to synthesize this tetrapeptide from two dipeptides. A mishap then happened in the laboratory: a flask broke, and the white solid landed on the floor. Somehow, while cleaning up, a small part of it got on the chemist’s tongue, so that he had no choice but to taste it (which of course one should never do in the laboratory!): The substance tasted sweet – the birth of aspartame! Similarly, the discoveries of penicillin, Teflon, Post-it, Viagra, and more all come from failed experiments that were looking for something else entirely. Serendipity had a hand in this (see column in UNI NOVA 115). Many snakes and frogs make peptides that are far more toxic than any man-made toxin. Such peptide toxins either block the nerves or the muscles, which can lead to cardiac arrest, for example. So they have a defined place of action, which is a sine qua non for drug development that is often not easy to achieve. Therefore, despite or because of their toxicity, these peptides are very good starting materials for the development of related compounds in which the toxicity is tamed by targeted chemical changes. Today, numerous peptides derived from snake and frog venoms are used as medicines to treat diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases and chronic pain. A tripeptide, whose anti-wrinkle effect even Hollywood stars swear by, was derived from a snake venom. It is on the market as Syn-Ake® and is sold in skin creams by a large German retailer, among others.

Silver nanoparticles
As the name suggests, silver nanoparticles are tiny particles made up of a few to a few thousand silver atoms. Because of their small size, they have special properties that are extremely useful for various applications: the antimicrobial effect of silver nanoparticles is interesting, for example, for coatings on implants such as dentures and artificial hip joints, their conductivity for electronics and their optical properties for imaging processes . The properties of silver nanoparticles are highly dependent on their size and shape, so it is important to be able to produce them in a controlled manner. And that is exactly what still represents an unsolved challenge. My research group is therefore investigating, among other things, whether the structural and functional diversity of the peptides can be used as additives for the controlled production of silver nanoparticles in defined sizes. Since it is difficult or even impossible to predict which peptide is best suited for the formation of a certain particle size, we use a method that nature itself has shown in evolution: namely to identify from many different peptides those which have desired properties. To do this, we first produce a large number of different peptides in a so-called “molecular library”. Such a library of a thousand or even a million different peptides can easily be produced within a week using the split-and-mix synthesis method. Using a clever screen, we were then able to identify within the library certain tripeptides in the presence of which silver nanoparticles with a diameter of 50 nanometers are formed, and other tripeptides that lead to the production of much smaller silver nanoparticles with a diameter of less serve as 10 nanometers. Why silver nanoparticles of different sizes are formed in the presence of the different peptides is now a question that we will investigate in future studies.

Peptides as catalysts
Everyone knows the term catalyst. In cars, it is responsible for converting combustion pollutants into water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and other harmless compounds. In addition, there are also many other types of catalysts that mediate material conversions without being changed themselves. In our body, for example, numerous proteins are responsible for our metabolism as catalysts (so-called enzymes). Although peptides consist of the same building blocks as enzymes and fulfill a wide variety of tasks in nature, not a single catalytically active peptide is known in nature today. It is therefore an exciting question whether peptides can in principle act as catalysts and thus play a role in the evolution of proteins. And also, whether catalytically active peptides can be efficient enough to be used, for example, in the manufacture of medicines. Again, we made a breakthrough by synthesizing a “molecular library” and developing a clever screen. Using this experiment based on natural evolution, we identified tripeptides that catalyze so-called aldol and related reactions with high efficiency. Reactions of this type are probably among the oldest of all, since the building blocks of carbohydrates can be produced with their help and these were certainly among the first compounds on earth. Today, such reactions are of great importance for the synthesis of many active substances – for example, the flu drug Tamiflu can be produced in this way. Peptides can therefore be both very efficient catalysts for important chemical reactions and act as a kind of mini-enzyme. Although nature has not designed them to do so to date (at least we don’t know of any), they may have played an important role in chemical evolution on the way to enzymes.

Posted on

Nonapeptide Skin Whitener

Nonapeptide Skin WhitenerNonapeptide Skin Whitener: Nonapeptide-1 is a small molecule skin lightening active peptide. Ideal for use in sunscreen, moisturizing products, skin firming products, and lightening products.

Nonapeptide-1 is a research peptide and can lighten skin. It works by inhibiting melanin synthesis by interfering with the action of tyrosinase in melanocytes. Nonapeptide-1 can reduce hyperpigmentation and lighten dark areas with sun damage and certain diseases. It works with melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) which increases during pregnancy due to certain medical conditions (e.g., diabetes, Addison’s disease) and excessive sun exposure. In studies, Nonapeptide-1 can completely inhibit melanin synthesis in fungi.
Research shows Nonapeptide-1 can inhibit 25-35% of tyrosinase activity in animal models and lower the melanin content of melanocytes by 27-43%.

Depigmentation Mechanisms

The depigmentation substances inhibit the enzymatic process of melanogenesis. The key enzyme is tyrosinase, responsible for the first step in melanin biosynthesis. By inhibiting oxidation enzymes, the depigmentation effect is enhanced. The enzymatic inhibition is reversible, so it only works if the depigmenting substances are put on the skin.

The whitening substances do not only work on the melanin spots. Removal occurs through the natural mechanisms of skin shedding and skin cell transformation.

The elimination of pigment spots is a slow process that takes weeks and months.

The depigmenting substances reach the melanosomes, which have very low permeability, via passive diffusion through the stratum corneum.

The negative stimulus that is triggered by UV radiation must be suppressed with light protection substances.

Due to the reversible inhibition of tyrosinase, the depigmenting substances must be used regularly and long-term.

It would be rational to apply the substances only to the spots to lighten them, but to date, there is no way to do this precisely due to the stability of melanin.

It is also challenging to remove dermal melanin, which macrophages eliminate. However, macrophage activity is also activated with treatment, but slowly a sun protection filter.

Chemical filters: Protection against UVB (290 – 320 nm), protection against UVA (320 – 400 nm)
Absorption of the harmful sun rays.

What is a Peptide?

To understand what a peptide is, we need to go back to amino acids and proteins. A protein is an arrangement of amino acids, like a string of pearls. A peptide is a smaller assembly, sometimes just 2 amino acids (between 2 and 10 it is an oligopeptide, between 10 and 100 it is a polypeptide). You could say it’s a mini protein. Peptides are usually obtained by extracting proteins, which are then hydrolyzed, i.e. “cut” into more or less small pieces. However, they can also be produced artificially in the laboratory.

What is the beneficial effect of peptides on the skin?

Peptides are present throughout the body and have a wide range of biological activities. They function primarily as cellular messengers that pass on signals and information to the cells. For example, they are involved in wound healing or the transmission of nerve messages.

Therefore, it is quite normal to find in cosmetics a multitude of peptides, each of which is of interest to the skin: -they soothe, stimulate the synthesis of collagen and hyaluronic acid

-increase cell renewal

-regulate the synthesis of melanin (the skin pigment )

-help the skin to repair itself or stay hydrated

-fight oxidative stress, etc.

In synergy with the other active ingredients in a formula, peptides are therefore a great asset for the skin.

Posted on

Semaglutide Online For Diabetes Research

Semaglutide Online for saleOral semaglutide online (Rybelsus ® ), the first oral GLP-1 analogue for the early comprehensive management of type 2 diabetes, arrives in Spain. The new drug is taken once a day, which allows the route of administration to be adapted to the needs and patient preferences, an aspect that obviously favors adherence to treatment and thus control of the disease .

>>BUY SEMAGLUTIDE ONLINE HERE<<

It is also thought that oral semaglutide online “should be nephroprotective like any drug that is effective in treating hyperglycemia” and that it helps “lower blood pressure,” argues Dr. Esteban Jódar, head of the department of Endocrinology and Nutrition of hospitals Quirón Salud Pozuelo, Ruber Juan Bravo and San José (Madrid).

“What the molecule is, we do have efficacy and safety data in patients with kidney failure”, in which, in addition, this drug is configured as “a particularly attractive alternative since it is free of hypoglycemia“, explains Jódar. In fact, reducing glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) “will lead to a lower risk of the onset and progression of kidney disease, just like any other complication,” says Dr. Jódar, who adds that there is evidence that with semaglutide decreases “the progression of proteinuric kidney disease”.

Semaglutide Online For Oral Dosing and Therapy

 

The new oral therapy also has side effects that are typical of incretin drugs, events that in diabetics affect a minority of individuals and that are of a gastrointestinal nature, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation. However, “the percentage of subjects who end up requiring the suppression of the drug is low”, establishes the expert. Be that as it may, what is done is to give gradually increasing doses so that tolerability and tolerance improve. In this sense, Dr. Sara Artola, Primary Care physician at the José Marvá Health Center in Madrid, explains that treatment with Rybelsus can be scaled from 3 milligrams a day to 7 milligrams after 4 weeks, and if good tolerance is observed, “ it reaches up to 14 milligrams in a single oral dose, always on an empty stomach,

Clinically relevant weight loss with Semaglutide Online

It is estimated that diabetes affects more than 6 million people in Spain, most of them with type 2 diabetes and other serious associated pathologies such as obesity or cardiovascular disease. For this reason, early and multifactorial treatment of hyperglycemia and cardiovascular risk is especially important, since in this way it is attempted, on the one hand, to delay the appearance of chronic complications, and on the other hand, to improve the quality of life of diabetics 2 . To facilitate the process, Novo Nordisklaunches Rybelsus (oral semaglutide online), a therapeutic innovation that combines, in a tablet, the efficacy and safety of an arGLP-1, having proven to be an effective treatment both in reducing glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and weight, and presenting a low risk of hypoglycemia 3 .

What is Glycemic Control?

Indicated for the treatment of diabetic adults who have not been adequately controlled to improve glycemic control, and as an adjunct to diet and exercise 3, oral semaglutide “would also be an excellent option for people with diabetes, whether treated with metformin or any other oral drug, who need weight loss” or a decrease in “the risk of suffering a cardiovascular event”, specifies the Dr. Jodar. In the words of Rodrigo Gribble, General Director of Novo Nordisk in Spain, “Oral semaglutide online can be established as a new reference in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Its solid clinical profile provides a much-needed therapeutic option for people seeking a new solution. and effective in controlling your disease. This drug is called to have a great impact on the lives of Spaniards with type 2 diabetes, and we hope it will be so”.

Semaglutide Online clinical trials

In the PIONEER program of clinical trials, which included 9,543 adults with type 2 diabetes, participants treated with oral semaglutide had significantly greater blood sugar reduction and clinically relevant weight loss compared with sitagliptin, empagliflozin, and liraglutide 4 .5 . And it is that, with this therapeutic alternative, management focused on the control of HbA1c evolves to an early comprehensive control of type 2 diabetes with a focus on weight management 6 . In addition, taking the new drug can benefit those “patients who have insufficient control and who are already treated with metformin and DPP-4 inhibitors. Therefore, oral semaglutide could replace the DPP-4 inhibitor and provide an additional benefit7 ”, specifies Jódar.

Type 2 diabetes or DM2 can be caused by multiple factors
Adapted from: International Diabetes Federation. Available at: http://www.diabetesatlas.org/. Last accessed: 12 January 2018.
Dissemination: Novo Nordisk / Cícero Communication

What is oral semaglutide?

So “oral semaglutide, in addition to being a new and unique arGLP-1 option to treat diabetes without injections, could represent a new standard for the treatment of type 2 diabetes 3 “, says Dr. Francisco Pajuelo, medical director of Novo Nordisk Spain. “Many people with type 2 diabetes do not achieve blood sugar targets accompanied by weight loss with low risk of hypoglycemia, which highlights the need for new, more effective solutions to improve diabetes control. And this is our commitment: to improve the health and quality of life of the people who live with it”, he highlights.

Blindness, cardiovascular diseases…
Diabetes can cause problems such as blindness, kidney disease or cardiovascular diseases. With this in mind, starting an appropriate therapeutic approach as soon as possible allows the natural course of the condition to be changed and serious complications to be avoided. “Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that can go unnoticed for years. Therefore, an early diagnosis and good control in the first years will produce a beneficial metabolic memory to delay the onset of complications and reduce morbidity and mortality”, says Dr. Artola.

Importance of not postponing the intensification of treatment

Both Dr. Jódar and Dr. Artola agree on the importance of not postponing the intensification of treatment for later, once diabetes has been diagnosed. In this sense, Artola comments that “having a therapeutic option such as oral semaglutide makes it possible to intensify treatment from diagnosis in patients with type 2 diabetes who also have obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia or cardiovascular or renal complications. This improves the prognosis and progression of these processes”.

According to the specialist, “up to 23% of people with diabetes have established cardiovascular disease, almost another 30% have some degree of chronic kidney disease, up to 9% have heart failure, and 45% have diabetes and obesity” . With these figures, Jódar maintains, “we hope that this new drug, the only one for oral administration in its therapeutic class, 3 will help us treat more patients in earlier stages to achieve this triple benefit (lower HbA1c and weight, and greater safety cardiovascular)”.

Added to this is the fact that, as Dr. Artola points out, “the aging of the population and the escalation of obesity” are factors that “are causing the number of people with type 2 diabetes to increase exponentially. Then we have a lot of work and These innovations help us tremendously.”

Source: Zoom / Novo Nordisk / Cícero Comunicación

The importance of seeking treatment alternatives adapted to the life of each one
In general, both experts say that patients tend to prefer oral treatments over injectables. “However, until now, the oral drugs available to treat type 2 diabetes were not as potent as some of the injectable drugs. And this is the need that helps us to cover oral semaglutide, also a first-rate technical advance by formulating semaglutide with SNAC, an absorption enhancer that allows a peptide to be administered orally”, explains the endocrinologist at the Quirón Salud Pozuelo hospitals. , Ruber Juan Bravo and San Jose. In this regard, Artola notes that it is always easier to take an oral medication than any injected medication: “the fact of having to give yourself an injection requires learning or errors may occur in the technique, although much progress has also been made in management devices. Oral semaglutide, taken thirty minutes before breakfast, always with water and separated from any other medication, helps to better control diabetes thanks to the benefits of this therapeutic group”.

What the doctors say

In short, both doctors affirm that it is important to look for treatment alternatives adapted to the life of each patient, so that effective diabetes control is achieved that improves their quality of life. In this line, they assure that “the therapeutic arsenal to treat diabetes has grown remarkably and, especially for people with type 2 diabetes, we have very good options. Knowing that there are drugs like oral semaglutide, unique in its class, gives us the possibility of benefiting many more patients than we were benefiting until now”.

Rybelsus (oral semaglutide) is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog and is the world’s first and only GLP-1 in tablet form. It is administered once a day and is approved for use in three therapeutic doses, 3, 7 and 14 milligrams in the European Union 3 .

Posted on

Albuterol For Sale

Albuterol For SaleAlbuterol for sale here today for research only. We supply Peptide Warehouses Albuterol for education and laboratory use only. If you are in the research community and want premium quality research products we can help. We supply a vast selection of research peptides and SARMs including Albuterol for research.  

Can you buy Albuterol?

You can buy Albuterol online with Peptide Warehouse for research only. We supply the raw ingredient Albuterol 5mg per ml x 60ml $52.33. It is an important product that goes into helping millions of asthmas sufferers every day.

VENTOLIN VS ALBUTEROL: How Do They Differ?

Albuterol and Ventolin are the same things. Albuterol is the drug’s generic name. Ventolin is a trademark of a specific inhaler that contains the drug albuterol.

Albuterol is a bronchodilator. It treats or prevents bronchospasm (tight airways) by opening the airways, making breathing easier.

Albuterol inhalers can treat or prevent symptoms of asthma or COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), including wheezing, coughing, tight chest, and shortness of breath.

Albuterol is a medicine used to treat or prevent bronchospasm, which causes asthma or COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). It is a bronchodilator, a medication that opens the airways to help you breathe easier. These drugs are inflatables or inhalers, usually administered by inhalation.

There are two common names for this drug: albuterol and salbutamol. You can see these words interchangeably. Brands for albuterol inhalers include Ventolin HFA, ProAir HFA, Proventil HFA, and ProAir RespiClick. These four drugs are available in an L-shaped inhaler.

Can You Buy Inhaler Online?

There are other ways to take this medicine. One way is called a jet sprayer. The Accuneb brand is also albuterol. It comes as a liquid that turns into a mist with the help of a jet spray device. To take Accuneb, wear a nebulizer mask, turn on the device, and inhale the misty steam for a few minutes. This version of an asthma inhaler may be easier for young children or someone who finds it difficult to use an aerosol or powder inhaler. Most inhalers and asthmas treatments are only available with a prescription. 

Ventolin Inhalers: What are they used for?

Albuterol inhalers treat two main conditions – asthma and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). 

Both conditions can cause coughing and difficulty breathing. All albuterol inhalers do the same thing. They open the airways to help more air pass through them and make breathing easier.

Asthma is a relatively common condition affecting about 7% of people in the United States. It often begins in childhood and is a condition in which the lungs are sensitive to specific triggers that do not affect others. For people with asthma, things like cold air, allergies (such as pet dandruff), or exercise can trigger the airways and trigger an asthma attack (NIH, 2020). Albuterol inhalers help relieve wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and tight chest, all symptoms of an asthma attack.

Is Albuterol a Steroid?

Albuterol is not a steroid it is a bronchodilator that opens the airways to make breathing easier. Albuterol is a short-acting beta-2 antagonist (SABA), which acts quickly and wears out quickly (NIH, 2020).

People confuse albuterol with steroids because asthma patients have prescribed a corticosteroid. It is a controlled drug and a rescue inhaler, such as albuterol. Unlike life-saving medications, control medications such as steroids regularly to prevent asthma symptoms. Patients using both medicines will use the control medicine to prevent symptoms and the rescue inhaler from relieving them.

Other medications can help relieve asthma symptoms or reduce the frequency of attacks. These include long-acting beta-2 antagonists (LABA), drugs such as cromolyn, allergy photos, biologics, and others.

It is important to note that these drugs are not a cure for asthma or COPD. They simply provide relief from symptoms.

Can Albuterol be Purchased Over-the-Counter?

If you have asthma or COPD, your doctor will help you. It will depend on your age, the severity of your symptoms, and how well you respond to the medication. You may need to use only a short-term symptom reliever, such as albuterol. Or you may need a combination of medicines to help keep your asthma or COPD under control. Albuterol is only available with a prescription.

Getting to know your medications can help you have effective conversations with your healthcare provider and get the proper treatment. Brand names may vary, but if you use Ventolin, ProAir, Proventil, or Accuneb, you are using the same medicine – albuterol.

Posted on

P21 Nootropic Peptide for Neurogenesis

P21 Nootropic PeptideP21 Nootropic Peptide  is a research peptide from CNTF (Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor), a polypeptide hormone and a neurotrophic factor. It promotes neurotransmitter synthesis and neurogenesis (creation of neurons).

However, unlike natural CNTF, P21 is more stable and can cross the blood-brain barrier. The development of this P21 is through a process called epitope mapping, which uses antibodies to identify target binding sites.

P21 is from the most active region of CNTF (residues from amino acid section 148-151). Glycine-adamantyl was added to the C-terminus to increase the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and increase its stability.

How does the P21 work?

P21 has several positive effects on the central nervous system. But its primary impact is on the dentate gyrus. Here it acts to enhance neurogenesis and neuronal maturation in the brain.

The dentate gyrus is in the hippocampal formation in the brain’s temporal lobe. It contributes to the generation of new episodic memories, and spontaneous learning occurs in new environments. In addition, it also plays a vital role in information processing.

Although P21 is similar to a CNTF mimetic, research in animal models shows that P21 does not bind directly to the CNTF receptor. Studies suggest that peptide P21 does not act strictly as an analog of CNTF. Instead, its action is more of an inhibitor of antibodies or other molecules that neutralize CNTF.

P21 Nootropic Peptide for Alzheimer’s

P21 has shown to be a promising treatment for specific neurological conditions, especially Alzheimer’s, a disease that causes memory loss, changes in mood, and impaired ability to move, among other symptoms.

In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), neurons and specific brain regions atrophy are lost. Before this damage, the brain’s natural reaction translates into increased activity in the dentate gyrus.

Unfortunately, aging and AD-affected brains cannot promote neurogenesis. Therefore, increased activity in the dentate gyrus does not lead to the creation of new neurons to replace neurons affected by the disease.

At this point, we can talk about P21 and its positive effects; this peptide increases the activity of the dentate gyrus so that it overcomes this limitation. It helps to change the balance of neurotrophic factors toward creating new neurons and neurogenesis.

Scientific research shows that the neurotrophic support by P21 leads to increased levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4. At the same time, you are decreasing the mitogenic effect of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2).

Interestingly, the administration of P21 before the onset of Alzheimer’s disease in animal models prevents the cognitive deterioration that usually occurs with this disease. Study results suggest that P21 could be even more important as a preventative than a potential treatment for Alzheimer’s disease.

Studies suggest that many drugs against Alzheimer’s do not work because they are prescribed too late when cognitive decline is very advanced.

The importance of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Alzheimer’s

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic factors essentially increase the neurogenesis and downregulation of certain enzymes. It is responsible for the formation of tau and amyloid plaques in the brains of patients with Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s.

Specifically, BDNF decreases the activity of the GSK3-beta protein, which catalyzes both amyloid-beta formation and tau protein phosphorylation, both of which cause the development of Alzheimer’s disease leading to inflammation and neurodegeneration.

It is worth noting that overproduction of GSK-3 beta shows in many disease processes, including type 2 diabetes, several forms of cancer, and bipolar disorder.

Knowing then that P21 can increase BDNF, it follows that limiting amyloid deposition in the brain may not be the only way to fight Alzheimer’s disease, which is one of the current treatments for AD.
Although plaque deposition begins early in Alzheimer’s disease, it is not until later in life that the effects of the deposition become apparent. The reason is the neurotrophic factor balance shifts away from neurogenesis.

Thus, combined with early detection through clinical biomarkers, P21 may offer the first real opportunity neuroscience has had to slow or even stop the progression of neurodegeneration.

A professor of neurochemistry at the New York State Institute for Basic Research explains:
“The problem in Alzheimer’s disease is an imbalance between neuronal death and neurogenesis.”

P21, the most potent nootropic peptide for neurogenesis

P21 shows promise as a treatment against neurodegeneration
The promising neurological effects of P21
There is hope that peptide P21 and other inhibitors of GSK3-beta may be helpful in the treatment of stroke, cancer, and especially bipolar disorder.

Also studies show P21 increases the activity of:

Synapsin I, an important protein for communication between neurons
GluR1 (AMPA receptor), a receptor that mediates fast transmission
NR1, a glutamate receptor associated with synaptic plasticity and learning

So, thanks to these effects, plus P21’s potential to promote neurogenesis, the researchers conclude that P21 may help restore cognitive function in diseased brains and stimulate this critical function in healthy brains.

Therefore, while research to confirm its full benefits must translate to animal models and future human trials, P21 already shows that it can be helpful as a nootropic and performance enhancer for cognitive tasks.

Cerebrolysin vs. P21

There is a myth in the world of nootropics that says that the peptide P21 is a derivative of Cerebrolysin, but the reality is very different.

As we have already said, P21 is a synthetic analog of the Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor, and this is only one of several components of Cerebrolysin. P21 has four amino acids from CNTF and an adamantane group added to improve the bioavailability and stability of the compound.

Therefore, P21 can best define as a synthetic and modified analog of one of the individual components of Cerebrolysin. Cerebrolysin in small amounts also provides essential cognitive benefits.

Nootropic Peptides for Research

For cognitive decline, Cerebrolysin is an effective initial treatment. Unfortunately, this benefit diminishes over time by high levels of exogenous CNTF. It promotes the production of autoantibodies that backfire on the body if the medicine is used too often.

It is worth noting that P21 is more effective than Cerebrolysin in preventing cognitive decline in animal studies.

In fact, Cerebrolysin has pretty much been abandoned as a long-term treatment because it causes the production of autoantibodies against CNTF. Thus, eventually not only becomes ineffective, it actually makes things worse.

The reason that cerebrolysin is antigenic (antibody-generating) is that it is a purified porcine product. So, the human body regards it as a foreign agent and rejects it if used continuously.

P21 removes CNTF antibodies, leading to increased efficacy of native CNTF and increased neurogenesis.

Nootropic users who have used Cerebrolysin report very positive effects

  • on mental clarity
  • information processing
  • stress levels

However, these effects seem to diminish with each new cycle.

By comparison, the immediate effects of Peptide P21 are often not felt as strong as those of Cerebrolysin. However, its mid- and long-term effects are much more consistent.

Conclusion P21 Nootropic Peptide for Neurogenesis

P21 is a peptide of great interest. While it has currently only been tested in animal models, the potential in humans is very promising. There is potential treatment for cognitive impairment, and for its ability to strengthen cognition in healthy individuals.

<<Buy P21 in our store TODAY>>