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Discover The Potential Of Research Peptides

Research Peptides Are you curious about the world of research peptides and their applications? Whether you’re a seasoned researcher or just starting out, understanding the ins and outs of research peptides is crucial. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll explore the fascinating realm of research peptides, from their definition to their range of potential uses.

What Are Research Peptides?

Research peptides are short chains of amino acids used by scientists and researchers in various fields, including biology, chemistry, and medicine. These small molecules play a pivotal role in laboratory experiments. Thus, allowing scientists to study cell behavior, test new drugs, and gain insights into complex biological processes.

Why Research Peptides Are Important

Disease Research: Research peptides are invaluable tools in the study of diseases like cancer, Alzheimer’s, and diabetes. Scientists use them to analyze the molecular mechanisms underlying these conditions, paving the way for potential treatments.

Drug Development: Pharmaceutical companies utilize research peptides to develop new drugs and therapies. These compounds are essential in the early stages of drug discovery, helping researchers identify promising candidates for further development.

Performance Enhancement: Athletes and fitness enthusiasts are increasingly interested in the potential benefits of research peptides, such as improved muscle growth and recovery. However, it’s essential to emphasize that the use of research peptides for performance enhancement should be approached with caution and under professional guidance.

Types Of Research Peptides

There is a wide variety of research peptides available, each serving a specific research purpose. Some popular examples include:

Growth Hormone Releasing Peptides (GHRPs): Studied for their potential in enhancing growth hormone levels and promoting muscle growth.

Melanotan II: Investigated for its ability to stimulate melanin production, potentially offering protection against UV radiation.

Peptide Hormones: These peptides include insulin, oxytocin, and vasopressin, which play crucial roles in regulating bodily functions.

Where To Source Research Peptides

When conducting your research, it’s essential to obtain research peptides from reputable sources. Look for suppliers that adhere to strict quality standards, provide lab-tested products, and have a track record of reliability.

GHRP Research Peptides for Muscle Growth: What Are They and How Do They Work?

Growth Hormone Releasing Peptides, often abbreviated as GHRPs, are a class of synthetic peptides used in scientific research to investigate their potential in stimulating the release of growth hormone (GH) from the pituitary gland. These peptides have gained attention due to their role in regulating various physiological processes, including muscle growth and repair. Here’s a closer look at GHRPs and how they work in the context of muscle growth:

What Are GHRP Research Peptides?

GHRPs are a family of peptides designed to mimic the natural mechanisms that regulate the release of growth hormone in the body. They are typically composed of a short chain of amino acids, much like naturally occurring peptides in the body. GHRPs stimulate the secretion of growth hormone by binding to specific receptors on the pituitary gland, which then triggers the release of growth hormone into the bloodstream.

How Do GHRPs Work For Muscle Growth?

Stimulation of GH Release: GHRPs primarily function by binding to GHRP receptors in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. This binding triggers a cascade of events that ultimately lead to an increased secretion of growth hormone into the bloodstream.

Growth Hormone Effects: Once released into the bloodstream, growth hormone exerts several effects on the body, including promoting the growth and repair of various tissues, including muscles.

IGF-1 Production: Growth hormone stimulates the liver to produce insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). IGF-1 plays a pivotal role in promoting muscle growth by enhancing protein synthesis and increasing the number and size of muscle cells.

Anabolic Effects: GHRPs are often studied for their potential anabolic effects. Anabolic processes are those that promote the building of complex molecules from simpler ones, and in the context of muscle growth, this translates to increased muscle protein synthesis and tissue repair.

Recovery and Performance: Some research suggests that GHRPs may aid in post-exercise recovery, reducing the time needed for muscles to recover and potentially enhancing athletic performance.

In research settings, GHRPs are used to study the physiological mechanisms governing growth hormone secretion and its potential therapeutic applications.

In conclusion, GHRP research peptides are synthetic compounds designed to stimulate the release of growth hormone, which play a role in promoting muscle growth and repair. However, these are still for research and not for human consumption.

Melanotan II Benefits And Risks: Exploring This Research Peptide

Melanotan II (MT-II) is a synthetic peptide that has gained attention for its potential benefits related to skin pigmentation and, to some extent, its influence on sexual function and appetite. However, it’s important to understand both the potential advantages and risks associated with this research peptide.

Benefits Of Melanotan II:

Skin Pigmentation: Melanotan II was initially developed as a potential treatment for skin conditions like erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) and as a sunless tanning agent. Its primary benefit lies in its ability to stimulate the production of melanin, the pigment responsible for skin, hair, and eye color. This can lead to a tan-like appearance without direct sun exposure, potentially reducing the risk of skin damage from UV radiation.

Appetite Suppression: Some users have reported decreased appetite while using Melanotan II. This appetite-suppressing effect can be appealing to those seeking weight management.

Improved Libido: Melanotan II may have an influence on sexual function. Some users have reported increased libido and enhanced sexual arousal as a side effect.

Risks And Considerations

Safety Concerns: The use of Melanotan II is not approved by regulatory agencies in many countries, including the FDA in the United States. This lack of regulation means that the quality and purity of products containing Melanotan II can vary significantly, leading to potential health risks.

Side Effects: Melanotan II can cause side effects, including nausea, flushing, and yawning. In some cases, users have reported more severe reactions, such as high blood pressure and heart palpitations.

Skin Changes: While Melanotan II may lead to skin darkening, it may not evenly distribute melanin, resulting in a mottled or uneven tan appearance.

Eye and Vision Issues: Prolonged use of Melanotan II has been associated with changes in eye color and visual disturbances. These changes can be unpredictable and may not be reversible.

Lack of Long-Term Safety Data: There is limited long-term safety data available on the use of Melanotan II, especially when used for purposes like tanning or weight management.

Legal and Ethical Considerations: The legality and ethical aspects of using Melanotan II vary by region. In some places, its sale and possession may be illegal, and its use outside of clinical trials can raise ethical questions.

Melanotan II is a research peptide that offers potential benefits related to skin pigmentation, appetite suppression, and sexual function. However, its use comes with significant risks, and is not for human consumption.

Peptide Hormones in Diabetes Research: Exploring Their Role and Significance

Peptide hormones play a pivotal role in diabetes research, contributing to our understanding of the disease’s mechanisms, diagnosis, and potential treatments. Let’s delve into how peptide hormones are involved in diabetes research:

Insulin – The Central Peptide Hormone:

Regulating Blood Glucose: Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by the pancreas, specifically by beta cells in the islets of Langerhans. Its primary role is to regulate blood glucose levels by facilitating the uptake of glucose into cells, especially in muscle and adipose tissue.

Diabetes Connection: In diabetes research, insulin is central. Type 1 diabetes results from the autoimmune destruction of beta cells, leading to insulin deficiency. Type 2 diabetes often involves insulin resistance, where cells do not respond effectively to insulin’s signals.

Treatment: Insulin therapy is a cornerstone of diabetes management, especially in type 1 diabetes. Research continues to improve insulin formulations, delivery methods, and glucose monitoring devices.

Glucagon – A Counterregulatory Hormone:

Role in Blood Sugar Control: Glucagon is another peptide hormone produced by the pancreas (alpha cells). It has the opposite effect of insulin, raising blood glucose levels by stimulating the liver to release stored glucose (glycogen).

Diabetes Research: Understanding the interplay between insulin and glucagon is crucial in diabetes research. In diabetes, the balance between these hormones is disrupted, contributing to glucose dysregulation.

Therapeutic Potential: Researchers are exploring glucagon-based therapies, including dual-hormone artificial pancreas systems that combine insulin and glucagon to improve glucose control.

Incretin Hormones – Regulating Insulin Release:

Types of Incretins: Incretin hormones, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are released from the gut in response to food intake.

Stimulating Insulin Secretion: These hormones play a significant role in diabetes research by enhancing insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. They promote the release of insulin when blood sugar levels rise, helping to control post-meal glucose spikes.

Pharmaceutical Use: GLP-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are examples of diabetes medications that mimic or enhance the action of incretin hormones.

Other Peptide Hormones in Diabetes Research:

Amylin: Amylin is co-secreted with insulin by pancreatic beta cells. In diabetes, amylin’s role in appetite regulation and slowing gastric emptying is of interest. Pramlintide, a synthetic amylin analog, is used in diabetes treatment.

Adiponectin: This peptide hormone secreted by adipose tissue has insulin-sensitizing properties. Research into adiponectin’s role in obesity-related insulin resistance is ongoing.


Peptide hormones, particularly insulin, glucagon, and incretins, are essential players in diabetes research. They influence blood glucose regulation, insulin secretion, and appetite control. Understanding these hormones’ roles and developing therapies that target them is vital for advancing diabetes management and treatment. Researchers continue to explore new avenues for improving diabetes care through a deeper understanding of these peptide hormones.

Where to Buy High-Quality Research Peptides: Choose Peptide Sciences

When seeking a reputable source for high-quality research peptides, Peptide Sciences stands out as a trusted and well-established supplier. With a commitment to purity, consistency, and stringent quality control, Peptide Sciences has earned a strong reputation in the scientific community. They offer a wide range of research peptides, ensuring researchers have access to reliable compounds for their studies. Whether you require peptides for investigations in biology, chemistry, or medicine, Peptide Sciences is a reliable choice known for delivering excellence in peptide products and customer satisfaction.

Exploring The Applications Of Research Peptides

Research peptides have become invaluable tools in the field of scientific investigation, offering a wide range of applications that contribute to our understanding of biology, chemistry, and medicine. These small molecules, composed of amino acids, are meticulously designed and synthesized for research purposes. In this exploration, we delve into the diverse applications of research peptides, shedding light on how they are instrumental in advancing our knowledge and potentially paving the way for innovative breakthroughs.

Applications Of Research Peptides:

Research peptides find application across various scientific disciplines, playing a crucial role in advancing research and discovery including:

Biological Studies

Research peptides are instrumental in studying cellular processes, signaling pathways, and protein interactions. By mimicking the behavior of specific proteins, they help unravel the mysteries of biology. For instance, peptide hormones like insulin and glucagon are used to investigate hormonal regulation, while growth hormone-releasing peptides aid in exploring growth and development mechanisms.

Pharmaceutical Development

In drug discovery and development, research peptides are indispensable. They enable researchers to screen potential drug candidates, assess their efficacy, and understand their mechanisms of action. Peptides serve as prototypes for the creation of pharmaceutical agents, targeting a wide range of diseases, from cancer to metabolic disorders.


Research peptides are utilized to investigate neurological functions and disorders. Neuropeptides like oxytocin and vasopressin are critical in studying social behaviors, while peptides such as substance P help elucidate pain perception and neurotransmission.


Peptide antigens are used to trigger immune responses and study the immune system’s functioning. Research peptides enable the development of vaccines, diagnostic tools, and therapies for various infectious and autoimmune diseases.

Chemical Research

Peptides serve as essential tools in chemical research, helping scientists design and synthesize new molecules. They contribute to the development of innovative materials, catalysis, and drug delivery systems.


In biotechnology, research peptides are employed in the production of biotherapeutics, diagnostics, and bioimaging agents. Their precise targeting and minimal side effects make them ideal for cutting-edge biotechnological applications.

The choice of research peptides are vast and diverse, spanning multiple scientific domains. These molecules serve as indispensable instruments for researchers and scientists who are striving to unravel the complexities of life. The development is to find new drugs, and advance our understanding of the natural world. As technology and knowledge continue to advance, research peptides remain at the forefront of scientific progress. Ultimatley, promising further breakthroughs in various fields.


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Newly-Approved Diabetes Drug

Newly-Approved Diabetes Drug Found To Also Boost Weight Loss

Newly-Approved Diabetes Drug

Tirzepatide, sold as Mounjaro, was approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat type 2 diabetes but a study shows it can also help with weight loss, quite dramatically. Dramatic remissions of some B-cell lymphomas are also reported in an early study of Adicet Bio’s CAR-T treatment.

CNN: Overweight People Lost 35 To 52 Pounds On Newly Approved Diabetes Drug, Study Says

A weekly dose of a medication recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat type 2 diabetes may help adults without diabetes lose weight as well, a new study found. Tirzepatide, which is sold under the brand name Mounjaro, was studied in people without diabetes in three dosages: 5, 10 and 15 milligrams. Participants with obesity or who were overweight and took the 5-milligram dose lost an average of 35 pounds (16 killograms), those on the 10-milligram dose lost an average of 49 pounds (22 kilograms), and participants on the 15-milligram dose lost an average of 52 pounds (23.6 kilograms).

Stat: Adicet Therapy Shows Complete Remissions In Early Study Of Lymphoma

Adicet Bio reported Monday that a unique, off-the-shelf therapy made from a special type of T cell induced complete remissions in patients with advanced and aggressive B-cell lymphomas, including patients with cancer who relapsed after receiving a personalized CAR-T treatment. In the early-stage study, six of eight patients achieved complete remissions after a single infusion of Adicet’s therapy, called ADI-001. Three of the patients were particularly difficult to treat because they entered the study with lymphomas that had relapsed after they received CAR-T treatments; all achieved complete remissions with ADI-001, Adicet said.

Stat: Praxis’ Novel Antidepressant Fails Make-Or-Break Trial

A novel antidepressant from Praxis Precision Medicines failed to outperform placebo in a pivotal study, the company said Monday, casting doubt on what was meant to be a nuanced approach to the brain’s natural regulatory system. The drug, a once-daily oral treatment known as PRAX-114, missed its primary and secondary goals in a study enrolling about 200 patients with major depressive disorder. After two and four weeks of treatment, patients receiving PRAX-114 did not see their symptoms significantly improve compared to placebo, the company said. Praxis did not disclose details of the trial results.

KHN: California Wants To Slash Insulin Prices By Becoming A Drugmaker. Can It Succeed?

California is diving into the prescription drug business, attempting to achieve what no other state has done: produce its own brand of generic insulin and sell it at below-market prices to people with diabetes like Sabrina Caudillo. Caudillo said she feels like a “prisoner” to the three major pharmaceutical companies that control the price of insulin, which ranges from $300 to $400 per vial without insurance.

Stat: Many Black Cancer Patients Not Offered Access To Clinical Trials, Survey Finds

Nobody offered Stephanie Walker a clinical trial when she was diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer. Nobody talked to her about what her options might be in clinical trials. She didn’t have a nurse or patient navigator, either, who could guide her through the treatment process. “It was just me, the oncologist, and his PA,” Walker, a registered nurse and patient advocate with the Metastatic Breast Cancer Alliance, said. It frustrates her to look back on that time, especially in the context of a new study that she and other patients and patient advocates led that examines the experiences of Black women with metastatic breast cancer. According to the study results that Walker presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting on Monday, the majority of Black women with metastatic breast cancer don’t get enrolled into clinical trials. Only 40% of Black respondents said they were even offered a trial.

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Peptides For Research Recovery

Peptides for research recoveryPeptides for Research Recovery is commonly used in biochemistry and research. It refers to the study and utilization of specific peptides to aid in regenerating bodily tissues, particularly in medical conditions.

Peptides are short chains of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. They play a crucial role in various physiological processes within the human body, including tissue repair and growth. Peptides for research recovery typically involve investigating and developing peptides that have the potential to enhance physical stress or injury.

Facts About Peptides For Research Recovery

  1. Tissue Repair and Regeneration: Peptides are particularly interesting in recovery. They can stimulate tissue repair and regeneration. It is important for those who require tissue healing.
  2. Muscle Research: Certain peptides, such as growth hormone-releasing (GHRPs) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), may help with cell repair and growth.
  3. Injury Rehabilitation: Peptides can be studied and developed to accelerate the healing process after injuries. They may promote collagen synthesis, essential for tissue strength and elasticity.
  4. Anti-Inflammatory Effects: Some peptides have anti-inflammatory properties, which can be beneficial for reducing inflammation and pain associated with chronic conditions. 
  5. Hormonal Regulation: Certain peptides, such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), can modulate hormone levels. These hormones play a role in recovery and tissue repair.
  6. Clinical Applications: Peptides for research are exploring the use of peptides to improve the recovery of patients after surgeries or to aid in the healing of chronic wounds.
  7. Safety and Regulation: It’s important to note that the use of peptides is for research only.  

Peptides For Research

In summary, “Peptides for Research ” is a broad area of scientific investigation and application. It focuses on developing and using peptides to enhance tissue repair and recovery processes. Researchers continually explore new peptides and therapeutic approaches to improve patients with various medical conditions.


The pool of research peptides could not be larger: They are obtained from unicellular, multicellular and multicellular organisms, or come from recombinant or chemical libraries. The number of these biomolecules is confusingly large, and the number of their derivatives is even greater.

Peptides For Healing Tendons

“As a rule, peptide active ingredients have many weak points,” says Tanja Weil, a chemist with many years of research experience. The assessment of the Ulm researcher is shared by many. The list of disadvantages of peptide active ingredients is long.

  • Peptides usually have to be given by because they are quickly broken down by proteolytic enzymes in the digestive tract.
  • Research peptides have a short half-life because they are also broken down quickly in the cells.
  • The liver and kidneys quickly remove peptides from the circulation. Shortcoming number four: Because of their hydrophilic properties, they hardly pass any physiological hurdles.
  • Their pronounced conformational flexibility sometimes leads to a lack of selectivity, activates different target structures and leads to side effects.

Peptide Costs

Because of their shorter half-lives, few peptides accumulate in tissues, thereby reducing hazards arising from complications from their degradation products. Compared to the larger proteins and antibodies, peptides can penetrate deeper into the tissue. In addition, they are generally less immunogenic than recombinant proteins and antibodies. Also, there are lower production costs, higher activity, greater stability (storage at room temperature).

Many research peptides come from natural proteins or polypeptides and often interact with membrane proteins. Usually small amounts are sufficient to activate or deactivate the target receptors. Few peptide antagonists that inhibit the ligand-receptor interaction have hit the market so far.

Healing Peptides For Research

Around a dozen peptide molecules are in late clinical stages. The approved peptide active ingredients cover a wide range of indications and are administered intravenously, subcutaneously, and even orally (linaclotid).

The majority of the approximately 120 test substances are aimed at the indications of oncology and infection. More than half of the pipeline peptides have a single target, with a tenth targeting microbes. The most frequently activated target structures are the membrane proteins, which are located in the outer cell membrane and conduct stimuli from the outside into the cell’s interior, especially G-protein-coupled receptors (almost 40 percent, according to Kaspar/Reichert). Many of the peptides currently in phase II have been linked to other molecules, such as PEG or lipids.

Stabilize And Functionalize Peptides Recovery

We can use it to synthesize peptides that nature cannot produce in this way and that have improved properties,” summarizes the Ulm chemist. One inevitably thinks of Lego building blocks when Tanja Weil begins to explain why peptides are now so well suited for ‘research development’ Example Cysteine ​​This sulfur-containing, naturally occurring amino acid can form disulfide bridges that stabilize the molecule. Cysteine, if incorporated at a specific site, could also link peptides together.

With this, according to Weil, coupling reactions could be optimized in such a way that, in the end, a functional protein could even be produced in the test tube. Complete production of an enzyme in a test tube is still a dream. But the way there seems to be mapped out.

Optimization Is Progressing

According to Weil, some optimization strategies have now reached a certain level of maturity. Animal experiments are now being carried out with encapsulated peptide active ingredients that are intended to pass through the gastrointestinal tract. The bioavailability of peptides can be extended by transporting them using nanovehicles such as mesoporous silica particles. Or by attaching polymers such as polyethylene glycol groups to the peptide drug (PEGylation). These polymers are known for their low adsorption to plasma proteins, which keep stable in the bloodstream for longer and allows them to target cellular surface receptors.

Research also promises a stabilizing effect by adding groups to the biomolecules that are not quickly recognized by enzymes. The breakdown of peptide active ingredients by digestive enzymes can be slowed down, for example, by incorporating D-amino acids instead of L-amino acids. Recently, the Münch, Kirchhoff and Weil working groups identified and characterized a peptide that forms visible aggregates that significantly improve the transport of viruses into cells and could be of interest for gene therapy, for example. “There are some promising approaches here,” not least in Ulm, where research is more advanced than with oral availability, says Tanja Weil.

New Stars Among The Biologicals

Biologicals such as peptides are gaining importance because of their high specificity and biological activity, since many small molecules fail because of toxic metabolites and unintended interactions. In view of advanced optimization strategies, peptide active ingredients are now considered an attractive class of substances that can open up new indications in the semisynthetic area, including in the area of ​​the CNS (Vlieghe, 54). Peptides are already being tested as anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory agents, as antibiotics and enzyme inhibitors in a variety of indications. Antimicrobial peptides are predicted to have a great future.

Peptides For Recovery Trials

The search for active ingredients in nature is not a new idea; the search in human body fluids is new. That could be an advantage because “the problem is always the separation, even with small molecules, their isolation and purification,” says Weil. Logically, endogenous peptides have a different toxicological profile than exogenous substances extracted from sponges or cytotoxic substances from tree bark.

And it’s not just researchers in Ulm who believe that the degradome, the sum of proteins broken down by proteolytic enzymes, is neither biological waste nor a coincidence. The importance of this degradome is supported by the observation that the more than 500 proteases that cut these peptides from proteins can be altered under pathological conditions. In addition, there is growing evidence that some of these larger protein cleavage products show specific and sometimes highly unexpected activity against human pathogens.

It is highly probable that many important peptide immune modulators and effectors are hidden in the human organism. A dozen interesting peptides with antimicrobial and anti- or proviral activity fished from human peptide libraries are already known (Münch, Ständker, 15).

By no means every peptide obtained from body fluids is suitable for development as a research agent. The value the knowledge gained is a benefit and hope is to increase our understanding of how cells are controlled. Plus, how they enter cells, and in the process possibly discover completely new mechanisms of action or defense in the body.

Peptides for research recovery for sale today

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Niod Copper Peptide

Niod Copper PeptideNiod Copper Peptide: A Closer Look at the Research Behind the Skincare Phenomenon”
In the ever-evolving landscape of skincare, certain ingredients have captured the attention of both scientists and beauty enthusiasts alike. One such ingredient that has garnered significant interest is copper peptide, a key component in Niod’s skincare products.

While its presence in the beauty industry is relatively recent, the research behind copper peptide’s potential benefits for skin health and rejuvenation is compelling.


What Are Copper Peptides?

Copper peptides are naturally occurring compounds in our bodies, playing crucial roles in various physiological processes, including wound healing and tissue repair. Researchers have long been intrigued by their potential to promote skin regeneration and address everyday skincare concerns such as aging, fine lines, and hyperpigmentation.

The science behind copper peptide’s skincare revolves around its ability to stimulate collagen and elastin production, essential proteins for maintaining skin firmness and elasticity. Additionally, copper peptides possess antioxidant properties, helping to combat oxidative stress and protect the skin from free radical damage.

Studies and trials exploring the effects of copper peptides on skin health have yielded promising results. Some research suggests that these peptides can help reduce wrinkles, improving skin texture, and promote a more youthful complexion.
Furthermore, copper peptides may support the skin’s natural barrier function, enhancing moisture retention and overall hydration. It can be beneficial for dry skin.

3Do you know about Niod Copper Peptide and what they can do? These claims range from the ability to plump lips and firm skin, to getting rid of dark circles and puffiness. Sounds pretty incredible, but are peptides really heroes in anti-aging skin care, or just over-hyped ingredients?

The Paula Choice Research Team breaks it down!

Peptides are proteins composed of long or short chains of amino acids, building blocks of protein. Peptides can be natural or synthetic. Most peptides used in cosmetics are synthetic, because the laboratory engineering of these ingredients gives chemists greater control over the stability and efficacy of skin care products.

What Is Niod Copper Peptide?

Buy Copper Peptides Here

One more example that the natural route is not always the best for the skin! The importance of peptides in skin care is largely based on the perpetuation of the cosmetics industry in the sense that there is a magic ingredient or group of ingredients, which are the anti-aging answer. It just isn’t true. There’s no one-size-fits-all solution to all signs of aging, although we admit it would be great if it really was that simple.

This is what you should memorize about niod copper peptide

Just as there is no single healthy food to eat or one supplement to take, there is no single ingredient that is better than the others. The skin is the most complex organ of the human body, as you can imagine, its needs cannot be reduced to what a single peptide or mixture of peptides can do. Although peptides are not miracle workers, they are good ingredients to use in skin care products, but we still have a lot to learn about how to best use peptides for maximum skin benefits.

Are Peptides Simply Scavengers?

Most peptides function as water scavengers, moisture-binding agents, and almost all of them theoretically have the ability to activate cellular self-regeneration in the skin. Those are interesting advantages, as long as they are not based solely on peptides. It takes a great blend of anti-aging ingredients to make skin look smoother, firmer, and of course, younger.

Peptides do not work like Botox or dermal fillers, used to reduce wrinkles . Peptides are definitely not the topical answer for those afraid of the needle! Research, aiming to prove otherwise, usually comes from the company that sells the peptide or blends the peptides for cosmetic companies.

Very often, the amount used in the company or laboratory funded study is much higher than what is used in skin care products, so the benefit simply does not exist.

Copper Peptides: Reality Or Fiction

Some wonder if a specific group of peptides – copper peptides (also known as copper gluconate) – are finally the anti-aging answer everyone has been searching for. The synthesis of fundamental substances such as collagen and elastin, is partly related to the presence of copper in the body. There is also research showing that copper can be effective in healing skin damage.

But so far, there isn’t much research showing that copper-linked peptides can smooth wrinkles and smooth skin. What’s more, these studies rarely, if ever, compare the supposedly wonderful results of copper peptides to other, more proven ingredients.

Wouldn’t you like to know if another ingredient (like vitamin C or retinol) works even better than copper peptides? We are sure that it is!

We have also received many questions about whether copper peptides should not be used with vitamin C, AHA, BHA, due to the interaction between copper (a metal) and ascorbic acid, but Superoxide Dismutase and Zinc work. exceptionally well with vitamin C and have metal chemical properties, too. Specifically for copper, there is no research to show this to be true, just as there is little research to show that copper peptides independently have anti-aging benefits.

Lastly, when it comes to copper itself, there is something called the Fenton reaction, a process where copper generates free radicals that cause inflammation, and we know that inflammation is pro-aging. We are not claiming that skin care products that include copper peptides would have this effect or to what extent this effect would be on the skin, but depending on how the peptides react with each other, it is a possibility. There are other alternatives, whose ingredients provide benefits without such concern. Why take the risk with copper peptides.

What Are Protein Peptides Exactly?

Protein peptides can be great anti-aging ingredients in skin care products. But as with the rest of the ingredients, they are not the only ones you need to make your skin look as young and healthy as you want. Take these seemingly fantastic claims about peptide products with a grain of salt, and remember that using products with a cocktail of ingredients (plus daily sun protection) is the best choice you can make for your skin’s health and appearance!


NIOD COPPER PEPTIDE Sources: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, April 2013, pages 1-8; and Journal of Investigative Dermatology, August 2003, pp. 177-183.

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A Guide to the Prostate 

ProstateProstate (or prostatic) cancer starts in the prostate gland. The prostate gland is one of two male sex glands that produce fluids (prostate-specific antigen (PSA), seminal fluid) and semen (the second is the seminal vesicles). The prostate is about the size and weight of a walnut and weighs about 1 kg. It is at the base of the penis and about 2.5 cm (1 in) from the penis’ opening. 

Prostate Cancer

Cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in men, and the American Cancer Society has estimated that there were about 268,new cases of prostate cancer in 2021. Some studies indicate that the incidence of the disease may be declining. Other studies have found that it is increasing. 

The most common form of prostate cancer is the slow-growing hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. The most common signs and symptoms of prostate cancer are difficulties urinating, blood in the urine, back and leg pain, and fever. Diagnosis is with a digital rectal examination or blood tests. PSA testing monitors if the disease has progressed to the more advanced forms. 

There are many treatments for prostate cancer are available. These include drugs, radiation, prostatectomy, and watchful waiting. Several preventive measures are also available. Many men choose to lower their risk of getting prostate cancer, such as stopping smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, eating a diet rich in fibre and vitamin D, and not drinking alcohol. 

For people with cancer, symptoms can usually be detected early. However, it cannot be cured once prostate cancer progresses, and it often kills its victims. Many prostate cancer patients live a few years, while others may live just a few weeks. Half of those who survive longer than ten years die from prostate cancer. 

Signs and symptoms 

Cancer of the prostate, called prostate cancer, is the most common non-skin cancer in men and second most common in women.

Symptoms can include: 

  • Difficulty with urination (obstruction, frequent urination, hesitancy, weak stream, and dribbling), frequent urge to urinate, painful urination, urinary infection
  • Pain and swelling in the prostate area Back or groin pain
  • Difficulty passing urine
  • An enlarged prostate (usually measured using digital rectal exam)

An enlarged prostate may cause blood in the urine, semen abnormalities, and may cause painful urination and discomfort, or urinary tract infections.

What are the Warning Signs of Prostate Problems?

The vast majority of cases of prostate cancer are an overgrowth of cells in the lining of the prostate gland. Some cases of prostate cancer appear to be triggered by inherited genetic mutations. However, in most cases, it is unclear how the mutated genes cause the overgrowth of cells in the prostate. Some inherited gene mutations are associated with increased risks of prostate cancer, while other gene mutations are associated with increased risk of different cancer types. 

Environmental factors cause most prostate cancer. These factors include dietary changes, which may result from lifestyle, diet and nutritional supplements; infections, which may be associated with specific strains of sexually transmitted infections; and certain medications. Some studies have found that obesity, frequent drinking of alcoholic beverages, and a high intake of processed meat may increase the risk of prostate cancer. 

prostateHow Do You Fix Prostate Problems?

Diagnosis Cancer of the prostate is diagnosed by digital rectal exam and the results of a blood test called the prostate-specific antigen (PSA). In most cases, the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in the blood are normal until a man is in the mid-50s, but the PSA levels begin to increase gradually with age. For this reason, PSA levels in men older than 50 are not helpful in determining whether cancer has developed. The normal level of PSA in young men is usually higher.

Cystoscopy and Sigmoidoscopy

A digital rectal examination is done to examine the prostate gland, check for nodules or tumors, feel the edges of the prostate gland, and measure its size. A cystoscopy (a procedure in which a physician looks inside the urinary tract using a scope) and a sigmoidoscopy (which is done in the lower end of the colon) are sometimes done to see whether there are tumors or enlarged lymph nodes in other parts of the body. A bone scan may also be done to look for bone metastases. 

PSA Blood Test

A blood test called the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is used to screen for prostate cancer. The PSA level is a screening tool that measures the amount of a substance, called prostate-specific antigen (PSA), in a man’s blood. PSA levels in men older than 50 are not helpful in determining whether cancer has developed. The normal level of PSA in young men is usually higher. 


Once prostate cancer is detected, it can be examined through various imaging tests, including MRI and CT scans, to assess its size and spread. In addition, biopsies can be performed through a local anesthetic to diagnose cancer. Biopsies are to obtain a sample of the tumor cells and ensure that cancer has not spread to other parts of the body. 

Other tests may be done in order to determine the stage of cancer or its specific characteristics, or whether the cancer has been treated successfully. For example, to see if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body, a bone scan may be done. For women, the ovarian Papanicolaou (Pap) smear is often done to check for signs of ovarian cancer. 


Although the exact role of PSA testing in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer is unclear, and there is general agreement that it can increase early detection of cancer. PSA screening, which involves checking for abnormal levels of PSA, is now widely used in the United States and most other countries to screen for prostate cancer. 

Screening for prostate cancer is controversial, and many experts have criticized PSA screening. Many men choose to have their PSA tested regularly, and many PSA levels will not show signs of prostate cancer. The National Cancer Institute has estimated that screening effectively decreases mortality by 20% to 30%. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends that men aged 55–69 should be screened, as long as they discuss the benefits and potential harms of screening with their physicians. However, they note that there is little evidence that screening is cost-effective in the range of ages they recommend. The USPSTF also notes that men who are at low risk for prostate cancer should not be screened for it. 

Prevention – Early detection and treatment 

Early detection is associated with a better prognosis for prostate cancer, but early detection also has been associated with high levels of over diagnosis. Because early detection makes treatment more likely, many groups recommend against the use of PSA-based screening in asymptomatic men. 

Several organizations recommend that men over 50 avoid PSA testing because the positive predictive value is lower for this age group. Men who have a first-degree relative with prostate cancer or a history of prostate cancer are encouraged to have regular screening, but many experts also suggest that the benefit of early detection is unclear. 

High levels of over diagnosis also limit early detection for other cancers, so there is also little evidence that men at low risk for other cancer types should be screened routinely. 

Possible Preventive Measures Include: 

Lowering one’s risk of getting prostate cancer by quitting smoking, keeping a healthy weight, eating a healthy diet, and limiting the amount of alcohol one consumes; A prostate examination every 1 to 2 years starting at age 40. 

The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends that men over age 40 check their PSA levels every 2 years. They recommend that men with a PSA level of 3 ng/ml or lower be followed closely without screening for prostate cancer. PSA testing cannot detect all prostate cancers and it may lead to excessive screening and overtreatment. If a man has an elevated PSA level for more than 3 years, it should be checked to determine whether or not there are any possible causes for it (e.g. enlarged prostate, infection). The American Cancer Society’s (ACS) 2019 recommendations on screening for prostate cancer include the option of delaying the first prostate examination until age 50. 

Genetic Testing

There is some evidence that specific inherited gene mutations have caused some prostate cancers. Genetic screening can identify these hereditary mutations and allow men at high risk to undergo surveillance or early treatment. The American Cancer Society recommends that men at high risk (e.g. those who have a first-degree relative with prostate cancer, a positive family history, or a history of fast-growing cancer in the prostate) discuss genetic testing with their physician. 

Men between 40 and 60 years are currently recruiting for a prostate cancer prevention study. Men who have a first-degree relative with prostate cancer, a positive family history, or in the highest prostate cancer risk category (based on a clinical risk calculator) are eligible for the study. The study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in which half the men assign to receive a genetic test and the rest to receive an information pamphlet. Participants in the study are not aware of their assigned group. Genetic testing and information from the pamphlets are used to decide the optimal screening frequency for participants in each group. 

Hormonal Research

Various forms of androgen deprivation treatment are used to lower the levels of hormones (prostate-specific antigen, PSA) produced by prostate cancer. Common hormonal therapies include luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs, anti-androgens, and chirogenic medications. Hormonal therapies are used to shrink prostate tumors and to decrease the amount of PSA in the blood before surgery is done. 

The most common types of hormonal treatment for prostate cancer are: 

The LHRH analogs (leuprolide acetate, goserelin) block the pituitary gland from producing LHRH. As a result, the testicles stop producing testosterone and cause the prostate to shrink. The anti-androgens (flutamide, bicalutamide) block the action of testosterone in the prostate. 

The chirogenic medications (methyltrienolone enanthate (Dbol), dihydrotestosterone (DHT)) reduce the amount of testosterone in the prostate. It reduces the amount of testosterone in the blood, which causes the prostate to shrink. While hormone treatment can effectively treat advanced prostate cancer, there are some side effects. It may also delay the spread of prostate cancer to other parts of the body and it can sometimes cause sexual dysfunction. In addition, some men who undergo hormone treatment stop responding to the treatment after a while and need other treatments. 

Prostate Surgery 

If cancer is detected in the early stages of prostate cancer, surgery is used to remove the prostate gland. Early diagnosis and treatment can lead to a more favorable prognosis. Many men who undergo surgery, radiation, or high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) will no longer require hormone treatment after the surgery or other treatments are complete. In some cases, a surgical procedure called cryosurgery can be used to remove prostate cancer. A cryoprobe is inserted into the prostate, and liquid nitrogen is used to freeze the cancer. This causes the prostate tissue to become dead. 


Prostatectomy is surgical removal of the prostate. For most men with early-stage prostate cancer, a prostatectomy is a preferred treatment. Because it is major surgery, people with high blood pressure or some other health problems should not undergo a prostatectomy. Men who undergo surgery for prostate cancer usually have their PSA levels checked at least 3 months after surgery. Prostatectomy will remove cancerous prostates in men who have urine flow or bladder control problems. If the cancer is very advanced, surgeons will use other treatments.


Radiation uses high-energy x-rays to destroy cancer cells. Treatment is given by a linear accelerator machine and can be performed at a hospital or a clinic. Radiation is used to treat prostate cancer that has spread to the lymph nodes, bones, or brain. It may be used in combination with other treatments, such as surgery, hormonal treatment, or chemotherapy. 

Radiation is often recommended after surgery to treat the cancer that may have spread to the lymph nodes. It is usually used in combination with hormone and may be used to shrink tumors before surgery. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) HIFU is used to focus a beam of sound waves on the spot on the prostate. It causes the prostate to heat up and can destroy cancer cells. HIFU is less invasive than other prostate cancer treatments. 

For this reason, it is a treatment for early-stage prostate cancer. HIFU is performed in the hospital and is covered by some insurance policies. However, some companies may not pay for HIFU.

Prostate Cancer Hormone Treatment

Many men who undergo radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer will have hormone treatment after surgery. This treatment helps keep the hormone levels down, making prostate cancer less likely to come back. Most men who undergo a radical prostatectomy will not be given hormone treatment. 

Hormone treatment will treat a recurrence of prostate cancer. It can be used in combination with radiation or in combination with androgen deprivation treatment. Some men may experience erectile dysfunction after surgery for prostate cancer. It is due to damage to the nerve cells in the penis. This condition is usually permanent. The risk of erectile dysfunction increases as a man ages. 

Other Prostate Cancer Treatments  

There are three types of treatment for prostate cancer: surgery, radiation and hormonal treatment.

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Alzheimer’s ICD 10 Research

alzheimers icd 10 information research

Alzheimer’s ICD 10 research has been increased recently in an attempt to understand the nature of this disease.

Despite the great increase in knowledge, a cure for the disease remains wishful thinking.

Dementias are not only increasing in industrialized nations, but also in China, Africa and India. An estimated 25 million people worldwide suffer from Alzheimer’s dementia – and the growth rates are faster than for breast cancer. The causes of the disease are unclear, although knowledge of molecular processes has increased massively. It is unclear whether and when there will be “the” Alzheimer’s drug at all. Nevertheless, Prof. Dr. medical Harald Hampel (Dublin and Munich) is cautiously optimistic about secondary preventive treatment.

What is Alzheimer’s ICD 10?

Severe setbacks for Alzheimer’s treatments mean three large clinical studies which, despite different “strategies” – according to the different hypotheses on pathophysiology – did not show the hoped-for success, but in some cases serious side effects. 123 clinical studies are currently underway worldwide, the first preventive medical studies are in phases II and III. In July 2008, the pipeline status still included
– 27 substances in phase I
– 25 in phase II and
– 10 in phase III
In the meantime, the number has roughly doubled, according to Prof. Dr. medical Peter Riederer (Würzburg). The strategies remain different, and the substances target a wide variety of systems (glutamatergic, cholinergic, histaminergic, serotonergic, cannabis and inflammatory systems) in addition to the amyloid cascade.alzheimers icd 10

How Does it Work?

The pharmaceutical industry uses different strategies in parallel:
nicotine acetylcholine receptor agonists, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, gamma and b-secretase, b-amyloid vaccination and protein deposition inhibitors.

The early disruption of glucose metabolism that Prof. Dr. Siegfried Hoyer (Heidelberg) as the long-time chairman of the board of directors of the Brain League is back in focus. Glycogen synthetase kinase 3 inhibitors compete against the changed central glucose utilization with downstream disrupted neuronal insulin transduction; with PPAR* gamma agonists, an approach directly at the insulin receptor is recommended.

On the other hand, the mitochondria could be a central early end of various processes that interact to disrupt the function of these energy powerhouses – ATP delivery and apoptosis, said Prof. Dr. medical Walter Müller (Frankfurt/Main). According to a publication in “The Lancet”, an “ancient” antihistamine from Russia is said to have a mitochondrial target and, according to the published data, spectacular success – contrary to all current hypotheses. According to Müller, however, the substance is currently not available.

Does Surgery Work?

Surgery at a relatively late stage of the disease with advanced neurodegeneration is probably not the ideal starting point for cures. However, for a study to start in the preclinical phase, instead of the clinical diagnosis,ICD -10 specific and valid biomarkers are developed as parameters. According to Hampel, they seem to have already been found for the amyloid cascade. In neuroimaging, PET is developing in a high-field direction, making even small lesions visible. General practitioner sets the course The prevalence

Alzheimer’s ICD 10 Research is Working

The number of Alzheimer’s patients in old people’s homes is increasing steadily: in 13 Mannheim homes from 55 percent in 1995 to 65 percent in 2003. Of the approximately two million Alzheimer’s patients in need of care, however, only one third is cared for in the home, two thirds are at home provided. According to Dr. Martin Haupt (Düsseldorf) only rarely in the home – and if so, then with tricyclics and conventional neuroleptics. The family doctor is responsible for the diagnosis the most important switchman, and he remains the “hub” in the coordination of the service providers. “But he is not the one who is responsible for everything and not the permanent contact person,” He was committed to communicating the diagnosis to the patient and not trivializing it. The stable phase can be extended through treatment– which gives patients and their relatives the chance to prepare for the difficult times and to discuss further options together.

*PPAR = Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor

Symposium of the Brain League eV “Alzheimer’s Research and Treatment – Outlook and Reality” in Frankfurt am Main

Vision of the Future

With early and comprehensive treatment with drugs and non-drug procedures, the development of Alzheimer’s disease can be slowed down by one to two years. A delay of just five years would reduce the number of Alzheimer’s patients by 50 percent. If it were postponed by ten years, the disease would have all but disappeared.

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Are There Drugs for Obesity?

Are There Drugs for Obesity?Are there drugs for obesity? What you need to know about medications approved to treat obesity
Do medications that help with weight loss work? Why are the drugs indicated for weight loss not used? Although there is a belief that obesity has no pharmaceutical treatment, it is also true that professionals have an increasing number of obese patients. These patients cannot maintain a healthy weight loss with changes in their eating habits. So patients’ frustration often makes them willing to pay exorbitant amounts to find a solution.

Are There Drugs for Obesity?

Thus, it is worth learning about and analyzing the types of medications that we currently have to solve obesity. It is necessary to assess whether pharmaceutical treatment for obesity can be a good strategy to combat it.

Today some drugs contribute between 5-15% in weight loss and improve all associated comorbidities (diseases or complications).

The Spanish Agency for Medicines and Health Products (AEMPS) currently authorizes three drugs for long-term treatment. However, bear in mind that in the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) already has five authorized. All are indicated for a body mass index (BMI) > 30 or a (BMI) > 27 with comorbidities.

The active principles responsible for these treatments authorized in Spain are Orlistat, liraglutide, and Bupropion + Naltrexone.

What is the Most Effective Research Treatment for Obesity?

Orlistat inhibits pancreatic lipase, which is the enzyme responsible for breaking down fats so that they can be absorbed. Consequently, there is a decrease in the absorption of fats from the diet. It is associated with weight loss:
-lowering of blood pressure
-prevention of type 2 diabetes

The possible associated adverse effects are gastrointestinal such as diarrhea or flatulence.
The drug is not for use during pregnancy, in cholestasis, malabsorption syndrome, or cyclosporine administration. It may increase oxalate in urine and may predispose to kidney stones.

Weight Loss Medication Prescription

The main medications currently approved and marketed are Ali, Beacita, Lestat and Orliloss These can be purchased without a prescription and given three 60 mg capsules per day with meals. As for those under medical prescription, they differ from the previous ones by doubling the amounts to 120mg. These are known by the names of Orlistat, Orliloss and Xenical.

Semaglutide Liraglutide Weight Loss

Liraglutide is an incretin analog, specifically glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). It is released in response to food intake and has receptors in the hypothalamus and in the intestine, where it increases the feeling of satiety. GLP-1 is a hormone that regulates glucose homeostasis by stimulating insulin secretion. It is also used in type 2 diabetes patients and in obese patients for its satiating effect. The possible associated adverse effects are of a gastrointestinal type: nausea, and abdominal pain; by itself, there is no risk of hypoglycemia.

  • It is contraindicated in thyroid cancer, type 2 multiple endocrine neoplasia, pancreatitis, and during pregnancy and lactation.
  • The administration is daily. It begins with about 0.6 MB the first week and will gradually increase up to a quantity of 3mg daily. The drug currently marketed is Saxenda and is under medical prescription.

Weight Loss Medication Prescription

The third and last drug approved is the combination of Naltrexone and Bupropion. It is a drug with significant effects. At the level of the hypothalamus, it stimulates satiety through a dual mechanism and stimulates the production of POMC and melanocortin. It blocks endorphin receptors and the pleasure associated with eating. It can cause gastrointestinal side effects and sometimes changes in mood.

Are There Drugs for Obesity?

These drugs pose an exciting line of intervention for patients with obesity. More new studies need to be done, and further efforts to prevent and treat obesity. In addition, more knowledge of the pathways that lead to excess adiposity is necessary. Investigation and intervention with the management of the treatments  above may put an end this problem.


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Recovery Peptides Beginners Guide To Research

recovery peptides explained in detail Recovery Peptides are omnipresent in nature and in our everyday life. They occur, for example, as hormones, neurotransmitters, sweeteners and anti-wrinkle substances and can serve as catalysts as well as for the production of nanoparticles.


Recovery Peptides are small proteins and, like these, are made up of amino acids, i.e. compounds with at least one amino and one carboxylic acid group. By coupling these two functional groups, amino acids can be linked to form recovery peptides and proteins. The term peptide is used when fewer than 50 amino acids are lined up; if there are more, one speaks of protein.

The bonds between the amino acids are extremely stable and have a half-life of several million years under physiological conditions. Proteins and peptides are like dinosaurs among the naturally occurring compounds. For example, the protein collagen can still be found in dinosaur bones today, and what’s more: His analysis shows that it is almost identical to those collagens

Incredibly Numerous Recovery Peptides

Why can peptides take on so many different tasks? The reason lies in the enormous structural and functional diversity that can be achieved by linking different amino acids to form a peptide.

A simple numerical example makes this clear: If you combine only the 20 most frequently occurring amino acids in proteins to form all possible variants of pentapeptides (peptides made up of five amino acids), you get 205 = 3.2 million different peptides. If these 20 amino acids are varied randomly in a peptide made up of 50 amino acids, then 2050 = 1.1 x 1065 combinations are possible – an unimaginably large number.

Since the structure and therefore the properties of the different amino acids differ significantly, these differences are magnified in different peptides. It then applies to find the peptide best suited for the desired property from the many variants. Nature has achieved this through evolution, and as explained below, scientists also like to use so-called combinatorial compound libraries to run evolution in time lapse and to identify the most suitable compound from a large number.

Sweetener and Toxins Peptides

A simple dipeptide, for example, is the sweetener aspartame, composed of the two amino acids aspartate and phenylalanine: it has the same energy content as normal sugar, but is 180 times sweeter. The discovery of this sweetener is by chance.

The starting point was the peptide hormone gastrin, which is released in the stomach after eating and regulates the formation of gastric acid. Since only a small part of the total peptide (a mere four amino acid sequence) is primarily responsible for the physiological activity of gastrin and since it was suspected that it might also have an anti-ulcer effect, scientists attempted to synthesize this tetrapeptide from two dipeptides.

A mishap then happened in the laboratory: a flask broke, and the white solid landed on the floor. Somehow, while cleaning up, a small part of it got on the chemist’s tongue, so that he had no choice but to taste it (which of course one should never do in the laboratory!): The substance tasted sweet – the birth of aspartame!

The Discovery Of Peptides

Similarly, the discoveries of penicillin, Teflon, Post-it, Viagra, and more all come from failed experiments that were looking for something else entirely.

Serendipity had a hand in this (see column in UNI NOVA 115). Many snakes and frogs make peptides that are far more toxic than any man-made toxin. Such peptide toxins either block the nerves or the muscles, which can lead to cardiac arrest, for example. So they have a defined place of action, which is a sine qua non for drug development that is often not easy to achieve.

Therefore, despite or because of their toxicity, these peptides are very good starting materials for the development of related compounds in which the toxicity is tamed by targeted chemical changes.

Today, numerous peptides derived from snake and frog venoms are used as medicines to treat diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases and chronic pain. A tripeptide, whose anti-wrinkle effect even Hollywood stars swear by, was derived from a snake venom. It is on the market as Syn-Ake® and is sold in skin creams by a large German retailer, among others.

Silver nanoparticles

As the name suggests, silver nanoparticles are tiny particles made up of a few to a few thousand silver atoms. Because of their small size, they have special properties that are extremely useful for various applications: the antimicrobial effect of silver nanoparticles is interesting, for example, for coatings on implants such as dentures and artificial hip joints, their conductivity for electronics and their optical properties for imaging processes .

The properties of silver nanoparticles are highly dependent on their size and shape, so it is important to be able to produce them in a controlled manner. And that is exactly what still represents an unsolved challenge. My research group is therefore investigating, among other things, whether the structural and functional diversity of the peptides can be used as additives for the controlled production of silver nanoparticles in defined sizes.

Since it is difficult or even impossible to predict which peptide is best suited for the formation of a certain particle size, we use a method that nature itself has shown in evolution: namely to identify from many different peptides those which have desired properties. To do this, we first produce a large number of different peptides in a so-called “molecular library”.

Such a library of a thousand or even a million different peptides can easily be produced within a week using the split-and-mix synthesis method. Using a clever screen, we were then able to identify within the library certain tripeptides in the presence of which silver nanoparticles with a diameter of 50 nanometers are formed, and other tripeptides that lead to the production of much smaller silver nanoparticles with a diameter of less serve as 10 nanometers.

Why silver nanoparticles of different sizes are formed in the presence of the different peptides is now a question that we will investigate in future studies.

Peptides as catalysts

Everyone knows the term catalyst. In cars, it is responsible for converting combustion pollutants into water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and other harmless compounds. In addition, there are also many other types of catalysts that mediate material conversions without being changed themselves. Our body, for example, numerous proteins are responsible for our metabolism as catalysts (so-called enzymes).

Although peptides consist of the same building blocks as enzymes and fulfill a wide variety of tasks in nature, not a single catalytically active peptide is known in nature today. It is therefore an exciting question whether peptides can in principle act as catalysts and thus play a role in the evolution of proteins. And also, whether catalytically active peptides can be efficient enough to be used, for example, in the manufacture of medicines.

Synthesizing Peptides

Again, we made a breakthrough by synthesizing a “molecular library” and developing a clever screen. Using this experiment based on natural evolution, we identified tripeptides that catalyze so-called aldol and related reactions with high efficiency. Reactions of this type are probably among the oldest of all, since the building blocks of carbohydrates can be produced with their help and these were certainly among the first compounds on earth. Today, such reactions are of great importance for the synthesis of many active substances – for example, the flu drug Tamiflu can be produced in this way.

Peptides can therefore be both very efficient catalysts for important chemical reactions and act as a kind of mini-enzyme. Although nature has not designed them to do so to date (at least we don’t know of any), they may have played an important role in chemical evolution on the way to enzymes.

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Nonapeptide Skin Whitener

Nonapeptide Skin WhitenerNonapeptide Skin Whitener: Nonapeptide-1 is a small molecule skin lightening active peptide. Ideal for use in sunscreen, moisturizing products, skin firming products, and lightening products.

Nonapeptide-1 is a research peptide and can lighten skin. It works by inhibiting melanin synthesis by interfering with the action of tyrosinase in melanocytes. Nonapeptide-1 can reduce hyperpigmentation and lighten dark areas with sun damage and certain diseases. It works with melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) which increases during pregnancy due to certain medical conditions (e.g., diabetes, Addison’s disease) and excessive sun exposure. In studies, Nonapeptide-1 can completely inhibit melanin synthesis in fungi.
Research shows Nonapeptide-1 can inhibit 25-35% of tyrosinase activity in animal models and lower the melanin content of melanocytes by 27-43%.

Depigmentation Mechanisms

The depigmentation substances inhibit the enzymatic process of melanogenesis. The key enzyme is tyrosinase, responsible for the first step in melanin biosynthesis. By inhibiting oxidation enzymes, the depigmentation effect is enhanced. The enzymatic inhibition is reversible, so it only works if the depigmenting substances are put on the skin.

The whitening substances do not only work on the melanin spots. Removal occurs through the natural mechanisms of skin shedding and skin cell transformation.

The elimination of pigment spots is a slow process that takes weeks and months.

The depigmenting substances reach the melanosomes, which have very low permeability, via passive diffusion through the stratum corneum.

The negative stimulus that is triggered by UV radiation must be suppressed with light protection substances.

Due to the reversible inhibition of tyrosinase, the depigmenting substances must be used regularly and long-term.

It would be rational to apply the substances only to the spots to lighten them, but to date, there is no way to do this precisely due to the stability of melanin.

It is also challenging to remove dermal melanin, which macrophages eliminate. However, macrophage activity is also activated with treatment, but slowly a sun protection filter.

Chemical filters: Protection against UVB (290 – 320 nm), protection against UVA (320 – 400 nm)
Absorption of the harmful sun rays.

What is a Peptide?

To understand what a peptide is, we need to go back to amino acids and proteins. A protein is an arrangement of amino acids, like a string of pearls. A peptide is a smaller assembly, sometimes just 2 amino acids (between 2 and 10 it is an oligopeptide, between 10 and 100 it is a polypeptide). You could say it’s a mini protein. Peptides are usually obtained by extracting proteins, which are then hydrolyzed, i.e. “cut” into more or less small pieces. However, they can also be produced artificially in the laboratory.

What is the beneficial effect of peptides on the skin?

Peptides are present throughout the body and have a wide range of biological activities. They function primarily as cellular messengers that pass on signals and information to the cells. For example, they are involved in wound healing or the transmission of nerve messages.

Therefore, it is quite normal to find in cosmetics a multitude of peptides, each of which is of interest to the skin: -they soothe, stimulate the synthesis of collagen and hyaluronic acid

-increase cell renewal

-regulate the synthesis of melanin (the skin pigment )

-help the skin to repair itself or stay hydrated

-fight oxidative stress, etc.

In synergy with the other active ingredients in a formula, peptides are therefore a great asset for the skin.

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Semaglutide Online For Diabetes Research

Semaglutide Online for saleOral semaglutide online (Rybelsus ® ), the first oral GLP-1 analogue for the early comprehensive management of type 2 diabetes, arrives in Spain. The new drug is taken once a day, which allows the route of administration to be adapted to the needs and patient preferences, an aspect that obviously favors adherence to treatment and thus control of the disease .


It is also thought that oral semaglutide online “should be nephroprotective like any drug that is effective in treating hyperglycemia” and that it helps “lower blood pressure,” argues Dr. Esteban Jódar, head of the department of Endocrinology and Nutrition of hospitals Quirón Salud Pozuelo, Ruber Juan Bravo and San José (Madrid).

“What the molecule is, we do have efficacy and safety data in patients with kidney failure”, in which, in addition, this drug is configured as “a particularly attractive alternative since it is free of hypoglycemia“, explains Jódar. In fact, reducing glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) “will lead to a lower risk of the onset and progression of kidney disease, just like any other complication,” says Dr. Jódar, who adds that there is evidence that with semaglutide decreases “the progression of proteinuric kidney disease”.

Semaglutide Online For Oral Dosing and Therapy


The new oral therapy also has side effects that are typical of incretin drugs, events that in diabetics affect a minority of individuals and that are of a gastrointestinal nature, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation. However, “the percentage of subjects who end up requiring the suppression of the drug is low”, establishes the expert. Be that as it may, what is done is to give gradually increasing amounts so that tolerability and tolerance improve. In this sense, Dr. Sara Artola, Primary Care physician at the José Marvá Health Center in Madrid, explains that treatment with Rybelsus can be scaled from 3 milligrams a day to 7 milligrams after 4 weeks, and if good tolerance is observed, “ it reaches up to 14 milligrams in a single orally, always on an empty stomach,

Clinically relevant weight loss with Semaglutide Online

It is estimated that diabetes affects more than 6 million people in Spain, most of them with type 2 diabetes and other serious associated pathologies such as obesity or cardiovascular disease. For this reason, early and multifactorial treatment of hyperglycemia and cardiovascular risk is especially important, since in this way it is attempted, on the one hand, to delay the appearance of chronic complications, and on the other hand, to improve the quality of life of diabetics 2 . To facilitate the process, Novo Nordisklaunches Rybelsus (oral semaglutide online), a therapeutic innovation that combines, in a tablet, the efficacy and safety of an arGLP-1, having proven to be an effective treatment both in reducing glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and weight, and presenting a low risk of hypoglycemia 3 .

What Is Glycemic Control?

Indicated for the treatment of diabetic adults who have not been adequately controlled to improve glycemic control, and as an adjunct to diet and exercise 3, oral semaglutide “would also be an excellent option for people with diabetes, whether treated with metformin or any other oral drug, who need weight loss” or a decrease in “the risk of suffering a cardiovascular event”, specifies the Dr. Jodar. In the words of Rodrigo Gribble, General Director of Novo Nordisk in Spain, “Oral semaglutide online can be established as a new reference in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Its solid clinical profile provides a much-needed therapeutic option for people seeking a new solution. and effective in controlling your disease. This drug is called to have a great impact on the lives of Spaniards with type 2 diabetes, and we hope it will be so”.

Semaglutide Online clinical trials

In the PIONEER program of clinical trials, which included 9,543 adults with type 2 diabetes, participants treated with oral semaglutide had significantly greater blood sugar reduction and clinically relevant weight loss compared with sitagliptin, empagliflozin, and liraglutide 4 .5 . And it is that, with this therapeutic alternative, management focused on the control of HbA1c evolves to an early comprehensive control of type 2 diabetes with a focus on weight management 6 . In addition, taking the new drug can benefit those “patients who have insufficient control and who are already treated with metformin and DPP-4 inhibitors. Therefore, oral semaglutide could replace the DPP-4 inhibitor and provide an additional benefit7 ”, specifies Jódar.

Type 2 diabetes or DM2 can be caused by multiple factors
Adapted from: International Diabetes Federation. Available at: Last accessed: 12 January 2018.
Dissemination: Novo Nordisk / Cícero Communication

What Is Oral Semaglutide?

So “oral semaglutide, in addition to being a new and unique arGLP-1 option to treat diabetes without needles, could represent a new standard for the treatment of type 2 diabetes 3 “, says Dr. Francisco Pajuelo, medical director of Novo Nordisk Spain. “Many people with type 2 diabetes do not achieve blood sugar targets accompanied by weight loss with low risk of hypoglycemia, which highlights the need for new, more effective solutions to improve diabetes control. And this is our commitment: to improve the health and quality of life of the people who live with it”, he highlights.

Blindness, cardiovascular diseases…
Diabetes can cause problems such as blindness, kidney disease or cardiovascular diseases. With this in mind, starting an appropriate therapeutic approach as soon as possible allows the natural course of the condition to be changed and serious complications to be avoided. “Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that can go unnoticed for years. Therefore, an early diagnosis and good control in the first years will produce a beneficial metabolic memory to delay the onset of complications and reduce morbidity and mortality”, says Dr. Artola.

Importance of not postponing the intensification of treatment

Both Dr. Jódar and Dr. Artola agree on the importance of not postponing the intensification of treatment for later, once diabetes has been diagnosed. In this sense, Artola comments that “having a therapeutic option such as oral semaglutide makes it possible to intensify treatment from diagnosis in patients with type 2 diabetes who also have obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia or cardiovascular or renal complications. This improves the prognosis and progression of these processes”.

According to the specialist, “up to 23% of people with diabetes have established cardiovascular disease, almost another 30% have some degree of chronic kidney disease, up to 9% have heart failure, and 45% have diabetes and obesity” . With these figures, Jódar maintains, “we hope that this new drug, the only one for oral administration in its therapeutic class, 3 will help us treat more patients in earlier stages to achieve this triple benefit (lower HbA1c and weight, and greater safety cardiovascular)”.

Added to this is the fact that, as Dr. Artola points out, “the aging of the population and the escalation of obesity” are factors that “are causing the number of people with type 2 diabetes to increase exponentially. Then we have a lot of work and These innovations help us tremendously.”

Source: Zoom / Novo Nordisk / Cícero Comunicación

The importance of seeking treatment alternatives adapted to the life of each one
In general, both experts say that patients tend to prefer oral treatments over needles. “However, until now, the oral drugs available to treat type 2 diabetes were not as potent as some of the normal route. And this is the need that helps us to cover oral semaglutide, also a first-rate technical advance by formulating semaglutide with SNAC, an absorption enhancer that allows a peptide to be administered orally”, explains the endocrinologist at the Quirón Salud Pozuelo hospitals. , Ruber Juan Bravo and San Jose. In this regard, Artola notes that it is always easier to take an oral medication than any othercmedication: “the fact of having to give yourself a needle requires learning or errors may occur in the technique, although much progress has also been made in management devices. Oral semaglutide, taken thirty minutes before breakfast, always with water and separated from any other medication, helps to better control diabetes thanks to the benefits of this therapeutic group”.

What the doctors say

In short, both doctors affirm that it is important to look for treatment alternatives adapted to the life of each patient, so that effective diabetes control is achieved that improves their quality of life. In this line, they assure that “the therapeutic arsenal to treat diabetes has grown remarkably and, especially for people with type 2 diabetes, we have very good options. Knowing that there are drugs like oral semaglutide, unique in its class, gives us the possibility of benefiting many more patients than we were benefiting until now”.

Rybelsus (oral semaglutide) is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog and is the world’s first and only GLP-1 in tablet form. It is administered once a day and is approved for use in three therapeutic doses, 3, 7 and 14 milligrams in the European Union 3 .